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Elizabeth of Schönau

(202 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1129 – Jun 18, 1164), of noble descent, entered the double monastery at Schönau (Nassau; OSB) as a twelve-year-old. Five years later, she took her vows there. Elizabeth became magistra of the congregation of nuns in 1157. Plagued by illnesses and anxieties, Elizabeth received many “revelatory visions” (Ruh) in ecstatic episodes beginning in 1152; the visions followed the liturgical year. Her brother, Ekbert (monk at Schönau beginning i…

Wolsey, Thomas

(383 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1472 [?], Ipswich – Nov 29, 1530, Leicester). After studying at New College, Oxford, ordination to the priesthood (1501), and a term as court chaplain to the archbishop of Canterbury, Wolsey, the son of an innkeeper and butcher, became chaplain to Henry VII in 1507. Under Henry’s successor, Henry VIII, his career in church and state began: appointed adviser to the king in 1511, in 1514 he was made bishop of Lincoln and later in the year archbishop of York. In 1515 he was made lor…

Magdalenes

(176 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] Since the 12th century, individual convents were founded under the patronage of Mary Magdalene to accommodate converted prostitutes and save women in jeopardy. The order of the Penitent Sisters of Blessed Mary Magdalene (Poenitentes Sorores Beatae Mariae Magdalenae) traces back to the initiative of the Hildesheim canon Rudolph of Worms, who founded convents for these penitents throughout the empire, beginning in 1226. Affirmed by Gregory IX in 1227 and subject after 1232 to the Ru…

Edinburgh

(314 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Scots Gaelic: Dun Eideann), capital of Scotland. Situated near the Firth of Forth, Castle Rock had probably long served as a stronghold when King David I founded Holyrood Abbey there and granted Edinburgh market rights in 1130. Elevated to city status by Robert the Bruce in 1329, Edinburgh rose to become the political and economic center of Scotland and …

Warham, William

(173 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1456, Church Oakley, Hampshire – Aug 22, 1532, Hackington, near Canterbury). After studying at New College, Oxford (fellow 1475; LL.D. 1488), Warham had a successful legal career in the civil and ecclesiastical administration and as a diplomat: principal of the School for Civil Law, Oxford (1490), Master of the Rolls (1494), archdeacon of Huntingdon (1496), bishop of London (1502), Lord Chancellor (1504). Appointed archbishop of Canterbury in 1503, in 1509 he crowned Henry VII…

Charles II of England

(189 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Stuart of England; May 29, 1630, London – Feb 2, 1685, London), king of England. The son of the executed Charles I of England, he was exiled in 1651, but answered the call of his country to assume the crown in 1660. Thus began the Restoration period, which was characterized by a balance of power with respect to the interests of the Crown and of Parliament as well as by the reestablishment of the Anglican state church (Church of England, Anglic…

Netter, Thomas

(166 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Waldensis; c. 1372, Saffron Walden,Essex –Nov 2, 1430, Rouen), Carmelite monk. Ordained to the priesthood in 1396, he studied and taught theology in Oxford. He was court preacher to Henry IV and confessor to his successors. As a convinced conciliarist he took part in the reforming Councils of Basel (Basel, Council of) and Pisa (Pisa, Council of); he attended the Council of Constance (Constance, Council of) as his king’s representative and (from 1414) provincial of his order. He f…

England

(6,850 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] I. General – II. Non-Christian Religions – III. Christianity – IV. Religion, Society, and Culture in the Present I. General England is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It has an area of 130,412 km2 and a population of 48,903,400. London, the capital, is also the largest city in the kingdom (7,074,300 inhabitants), followed by Birmingham (1,017,500). England comprises eight geographical regions (The S…

Dorothea of Montau

(204 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1347, Montau/Matowy near Danzig/Gdánsk – Jun 25, 1394, Marienwerder/Kwidzyn). Driven quite early by the desire for discipleship to Christ, this farmer's daughter nevertheless married in 1363. She subsequently led a life of intensive penitence and devotion shaped by love of poverty and the Eucharist, devotion to the passion and Mary, and bridal mysticism. She rec…

Ebner, Margareta

(165 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (c. 1291, Donauwörth – Jun 20, 1351, Maria Medingen). This patrician's daughter entered the Convent of Maria Medingen at a very early age. Constantly ill and isolated within the convent from 1312 on, she understood her illness as her path to God. Prayer, contemplation, and asceticism under the banner of an intense devotion to Christ (reflection on the Passion, the childhood of Jesus, etc.) led her to mystical experiences (visions, auditions, glossolalia). ¶ Henry of Nördlingen was important for her spiri…

Cromwell, Thomas

(235 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1485?, Putney – Jul 28, 1540, London). Born into humble circumstances, after a turbulent youth Cromwell acquired enough legal knowledge (probably self-taught) to find employment as a solicitor. Around 1520 he came to work for Cardinal T. Wolsey; in 1523 he became a member of Parliament. After Wolsey's fall in 1529, he continued to pursue his own career. Made a member of the royal council by Henry VIII in 1531, he consolidated his position…

Cambridge University

(762 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] The founding of Cambridge University probably goes back to members of Oxford University who left Oxford in reaction to the closing of schools in 1209 that resulted from disputes between the city and the university. Although instruction resumed in Oxford in 1214, a few scholars remained in Cambridge. Proximity to the episcopal see of Ely favored the establishment of a permanent institution, and Cambridge and Oxford remained the only English univer…

Matthew of Paris

(183 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Matthaeus Parisiensis; c. 1200 – June 1259, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England). In 1217, he entered the Benedictine Abbey of St. Albans, had contacts with the court of Henry III, and in 1248/1249 reformed the Norwegian monastery of Holm (OSB) on papal commission. As a chronicler, he continued the world chronicle of Roger of Wendover (died 1236) in his main work entitled Chronica maiora. He wrote several works on English history, including Historia Anglorum, and on the history of his own monastery, Gesta Abbatum. He authored lives of saints, including of Steph…

Parker, Matthew

(290 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (Aug 6, 1504, Norwich – May 17, 1575, Lambeth), son of a well-to-do weaver, studied at Corpus Christi College in Cambridge from 1522 to 1528; he remained close to the college throughout his life, being elected master in 1544. His collection of medieval manuscripts became the core of the college’s Parker Library. At Cambridge Parker was won to the Protestant cause (T. Bilney, H. Latimer). In 1535 Anne Boleyn, the mother of Elizabeth I, appointed Parker, now a well-known preacher, a…

Knox, John (I)

(604 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] (1514 [?], Haddington, East Lothian – Nov 24, 1572, Edinburgh). As a theologian and church politician, Knox shaped the introduction of Protestantism to Scotland. Little is known about his background, youth, and intellectual development. Knox himself said nothing about these matters. After his studies, probably in St. Andrews, and his ordination to the priesthood (c. 1536), he initially worked as a notary and private tutor in the service of nobility in Lothian who sympathized with …

Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit

(312 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[German Version] is the term for a number of individuals and groups persecuted as heretical; they do not constitute a homogeneous organization, even if some connections exist between individual representatives – mostly laypersons, including a disproportionately large number of women. Nor can a unified doctrinal system be identified. More instructive than the stereotypical lists of heresies, as were produced by the church in the context of persecution, are direct sources from the series of Brothers and Sisters, especially the Miroir des simples âmes of Marguerite …

Pole

(296 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Pole, Reginald (3.3.1500 Stourton Castle, Staffordshire – 17.11.1558 Lambeth, heute Stadtbezirk von London), Abkömmling des Hochadels und mit Heinrich VIII. von England verwandt, wurde in seiner Ausbildung an den Universitäten Oxford und Padua vom König gefördert. Er trat in Verbindung mit engl. und ital. Humanisten (Th. Morus, P. Bembo) und korrespondierte mit Erasmus von Rotterdam. Auf Druck der Familie nach England zurückgekehrt, setzte er seine Studien in der Kartause Sheen fo…

Thomas Becket

(287 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] (21.12.1120 [?] London – 29.12.1170 Canterbury). Der Sohn eines Kaufmannes wurde nach dem Studium in Paris 1143 in den Haushalt des Erzbf. Theobald von Canterbury aufgenommen, der ihn 1154 zum Archidiakon von Canterbury weihte; 1155 machte Heinrich II. ihn zu seinem Kanzler. Th. war ehrgeizig und pflegte einen aufwendigen Lebensstil, galt aber als hochbegabt und unbestechlich. Als Vertrauter des Königs setzte er dessen Politik auch gegen die Interessen der Kirche durch. Das änder…

Wolsey

(344 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] , Thomas (1472 [?] Ipswich – 29.11.1530 Leicester). Nach dem Studium in Oxford (New College), der Priesterweihe (1501) und einer Zeit als Hofkaplan des Erzbf. von Canterbury wurde der Sohn eines Gastwirtes und Metzgers 1507 Kaplan Heinrichs VII.; unter dessen Nachfolger (Heinrich VIII.) begann seine Karriere in Kirche und Staat: Seit 1511 königlicher Berater, wurde er 1514 Bf. von Lincoln und später im Jahr Erzbf. von York, 1515 Kardinal und Lordkanzler. Obwohl W. Warham als Erzbf…

Warham

(164 words)

Author(s): Ehrenschwendtner, Marie-Luise
[English Version] Warham, William (um 1456 Church Oakley, Hampshire – 22.8.1532 Hackington bei Canterbury). Nach dem Studium in Oxford (New College; Fellow 1475; LL.D. 1488) machte W. erfolgreich Karriere als Jurist in der staatl. und kirchl. Verwaltung und als Diplomat: Principal der School for Civil Law, Oxford (1490); Master of the Rolls (1494); Erzdiakon von Huntingdon (1496); Bf. von London (1502); Lordkanzler (1504). Als Erzbf. von Canterbury (seit 1503) krönte er Heinrich VIII. und Katharina…
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