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Lactuca

(307 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Lettuce plant Lettuce (θρίδαξ/ thrídax, also θρύ-, θρόδαξ/ thrý-, thródax, θριδακίνη/ thridakínē, Lactuca sativa L.), the lettuce plant known in several varieties (Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,4,5 et passim), whose cultivation and protection against pests, as well as culinary and medical uses, are described by Theophrastus. Thus, according to Theophr. Hist. pl. 7,6,2, its juice is said to help against dropsy and eye sores. Lettuce has been cultivated in Europe, North Africa and Asia for a long time …

Geminius

(201 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from, and in manuscripts often confused with, Geminus (Schulze 108). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G. Friend of Pompey Friend of Pompey, on whose orders he murdered M. Iunius Brutus in 77 BC (Plut. Pompeius 2,6; 16,6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Friend des M. Antonius Friend of the triumvir Marcus Antonius [I 9], who tried in vain to persuade the latter to return to Rome in 32 BC and become reconciled with Octavian (Plut. Antonius 59,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1]…

Favonius

(377 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Flamant, Jaques (Venelles)
Rare Roman family name, occurring in Latium (Schulze 563). [German version] [1] F., M. Opponent of P. Clodius Pulcher He came from the municipal elite and was a follower of M.  Porcius Cato (Uticensis), whose political and personal intransigence he attempted to imitate, leading to envy and numerous electoral defeats. In 61 BC he attacked P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, in 60 he unsuccessfully charged Q. Caecilius [I 32] Metellus Pius Scipio. In the 50s he opposed Caesar, Pompey and Crassus in vain. He became aedile in 5…

Saufeius

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Italic nomen gentile. The family was from the ancient local aristocracy of Praeneste (CIL I2 279-290; 1467-1471; 2439) and is attested in Rome itself and as traders on Delos from the end of the 2nd cent. BC onwards (RRC 204). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S., L. Appears in Cicero's letters 67-44 BC as an Epicurean (Cic. Att. 7,2,4) and a friend of Pomponius [I 5] Atticus (Cic. Att. 7,1,1). In 43 the latter rescued S., who had been proscribed because of his wealth  (Nep. Att. 12,3). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] S., M. Leader of Annius [I 14] Milo's followe…

Acutius

(77 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] A., M. Tribunus plebis 401 BC Tribunus plebis 401 BC (MRR 1, 84). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Rufus Supporter of Pompeius supporter of Pompeius (Caes. B Civ. 3,83,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] A. Nerva, Q. Cos. suff. in AD 100 cos. suff. in AD 100, probably identical to the governor of Lower Germany in 101/102 (CIL XIII 7697; 7715 f.; FOst 45; PIR2 A 101 [1]). Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 Eck, 161 f.

Decidius

(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name, historically attested since the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 3,70). [German version] [1] Decidius Saxa, L. People's tribune 44 BC born in Spain (according to Cic. Phil. 11,5,12), but probably of Italic descent, he fought against the Pompeians in Spain in 49 BC (Caes. B Civ. 1,66,3) and in 45 probably against Pompeius' sons. Designated people's tribune by Caesar for 44, he joined M. Antonius [I 9] after Caesar's death and became a member of a commission for the distribution of land to veterans (MRR 2…

Curio

(238 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Cognomen in the gens Scribonia Cognomen in the gens Scribonia ( Scribonius). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 2, 757-760 Kajanto, Cognomina 318. [German version] [2] Head of each of the 30 curiae Curio is the name traditionally given to the head of each of the 30 curiae, the old class of the Roman people between the tribus and the gentes. The curiones is assisted in his religious role by a flamen curialis; at the head of the curio was a curio maximus (Liv. 27,8,1; CIL VIII 1174) elected by all the people. We cannot delineate in detail a…

Allius

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] M., friend of Catullus (1st cent. BC) M., friend of Catullus (Carm. 68 is dedicated to him). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Bala, C., mint master in 92 BC Bala, C., mint master in 92 BC (RRC 336). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Fuscianus, cos. suff. (around 160 AD) Fuscianus, C., praetorian governor of Arabia around AD 160 and cos. suff. (PIR2 A 544) [1]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] Fuscus, governor (end of 2nd cent. AD) Fuscus, C., son of no. 3, consular governor of Germania Inferior, p…

Numonius

(173 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Roman family name. We know of a C.N. Vala, who as IIIvir monetalis in 41 BC minted aurei and denarii (RRC 514; see under N. [1]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] N. Vala Addressee of Hor. epist. 1, 15 Horace wrote to him around 20 BC (Hor. Epist. 1,15). Possibly identifiable with the C.N. Vala, who in 41 AD is documented as mint master (RRC 1, 522f. No. 514). PIR2 N 243; 244. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] C.N.Vala Legate of Q. Varus in Germania Legate of Quinctilius Varus on the latter's last campaign through Germania; N. fled with the cavalry in…

Coelius

(856 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian gentilicium, also Coilius, in surviving manuscripts often confused with Caelius (Schulze 155; ThlL, Onom. 2, 523-525). Bearers of this name are documented since the 2nd cent. BC, usually belonging to the Tribus Aemilia. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C. Antipater, L. Historiographer, late 2nd cent. BC Possibly the brother of the senator C. Coelius C.f. [1; 2. 16], a highly educated scholar of law and rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 102; Dig. 1,2,2,40), considered the teacher and friend of L. Licinius Crassu…

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Gracchus

(182 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, as a praenomen passed down for the Aequian king G. Cloelius in 458 BC (Liv. 3,25,5). As cognomen prominent in the family of the Sempronii, especially with the people's tribunes Ti. and C.  Sempronius Gracchus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Writer of Lat. tragedies Writer of Latin tragedies ( Thyestes, Atalanta, Peliades), only a short fragment of each is extant (for Inc. inc. fab. 120-124 2R see [4]); Ov. Pont. 4,16,31 names him together with L.  Varius Rufus in a catalogue of contemporary writers. This…

Perperna

(589 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg)
Nomen gentile of an Etruscan family (or Perpenna on inscriptions ); the family must have received citizenship early: its rise to political power began with P. [2]. P. [3] was the first person with a non-Roman name to become consul, although he lost his citizenship in 126 BC. [German version] [1] P., C. Praetor no later than 91 BC, legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in 90 Probably brother of P. [4], praetor no later than 91 BC, was defeated in 90 as legate of consul P. Rutilius Lupus in the Civil War [3] (App. B Civ. 1,179; 183). MRR 2, 20; 29. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P., M. L…

Varus

(229 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Common Roman cognomen, initially an individual epithet ('bow-legged', cf. Plin. HN 11,254). Recorded for Alfenus [3; 5], Aternius, Licinius [I 46-47], Quinctilius [I 1-3; II 7-8], Vibius. The best known bearer was P. Quinctilius [II 7] V. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCap., 149 Id., FCIR, 271 Kajanto, Cognomina, 242. [German version] [2] Sophist from Perge, c. 150 (Οὔαρος/ Oúaros). Sophist from Perge, c. AD 150, from a noble family, presumably the Plancii (Plancius; cf. [1. 22; 2]). Son of one Callic…

Annia

(257 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Wife of L. Cornelius Cinna († 84), then of M. Pupius Piso Frugi, cos. 61 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,41,2). Perhaps sister of A. [I 12] and daughter of C.  Annius [I 15] Rufus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Aurelia Galeria Lucilla see Lucilla Aug. Spouse of L. Verus  Lucilla Aug. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2a] A. Fundania Faustina daughter of M. Annius [II 9] Libo, married to T. Pomponius Proculus Vitrasius [4] Pollio; executed under Commodus (AD 180-192, HA Comm. 7,7). PIR2 A 713. Eck, Werner…

Rubrius

(561 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Common nomen gentile in the late Republic and early Principate; its bearers are generally of little political importance (Schulze, 221; 462). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] R., C. (?) People's tribune, 122 BC As people's tribune in 122 BC, he laid down a law concerning the foundation of the colony of Carthage by C. Sempronius Gracchus (Plut. C. Gracchus 10,2; mentioned as lex Rubria CIL I2 585, ch. 59; perhaps also mentioned in Sherk 16, l. 12). MRR 1,517; 3,182. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R. Propraetor of Macedonia i…

Salvianus

(171 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
Roman cognomen, extension of Salvius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] S. of Massilia Christian theologian at Massilia, died after 465 (modern Marseille), probably born after AD 400 at Trier, evidence of his presence on the Lérins Islands, married, later ascetic, wrote the treatise Ad Ecclesiam (‘To the Church’; Pseudepigraphy [II]) after 435, exhortating all Christians to donate all inheritance for ascetic reasons for the work of the church. S. then lived at Marseille as a priest until his death (after c. 465), there composing De gubernatione Dei (‘The Government…

Pompilius

(148 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman nomen gentile of Etruscan origin ( pumple). King Numa Pompilius was considered as the first ancestor of the family. The known bearers of the name are historically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] P. Andronicus, M. Grammarian, 1st cent. BC According to Suet. Gram. 8, a 1st century BC grammarian and freedman from Syria; because of his Epicurean philosophical focus, he failed to establish himself in Rome and so moved to Cumae (Cyme [2]). His main work, a criticism of the Annales of Ennius [1] ( Annalium Enni Elenchi in 16 books), was published by …

Faustinus

(309 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] see Faustulus See Faustulus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wealthy friend of the poet Martial Wealthy friend of the poet Martial, who dedicated bks. 3 (3,2) and 4 (4,10) to him; he owned villae in Baiae (3,58), Tibur (4,57), Tarracina (10,51,8) and Trebula (5,71). PIR2 F 127. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Governor, in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus Governor, probably in AD 273, of the province of Belgica under Esuvius [1] Tetricus; according to Polemius Silvius (Chron. Min.…

Fannius

(762 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen (Schulze 266; 424), attested historically from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F.M. f., C. Rom. senator and historian, partaker in the storming of Carthage Roman senator and historian (in Cic. Brut. 99 falsely differentiated from a relative). F. distinguished himself in 146 BC with Ti. Gracchus at the storming of Carthage (Plut. Gracchi 4,6), fought in 141 as tribunus militum in Spain (App. Ib. 287), was the son-in-law of C.  Laelius and heard  Panaetius (Cic. Brut. 100f.). In…
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