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Balbinus

(357 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf)
Roman cognomen (ThlL 2,1694f.; [1. 240]). Consuls with the epithet B.: L. Saenius B. (? 30 BC), P. Coelius B. Vibellius Pius (AD 137), L. Valerius Poblicola B. (AD 256). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] D.C. (Calvinus) B. = Imperator Caesar D.C. Calvinus B. Elected emperor by the Senate in 238 AD According to Zonaras, (12,17, not precise) 60 years old in the year AD 238, when he was elected emperor by the Senate, together with  Pupienus, who is always mentioned before him. Supposed descendant of the Gaditanian Cornelius Balbus (S…

Africanus

(177 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Originally the epithet of a victor, first assumed by P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Maior) after the victory over Carthage in 201 BC (Liv. 30,45,6), then assumed by his adoptive son P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Minor), cos. 147; later as surname also in other families [1]. In the imperial era surname of the emperors Gordian I and II, Justinian I and Flavius Mauricius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek doctor 2nd or 1st cent. BC Greek doctor of the 2nd or 1st cent. BC, who dedicated a few of his prescriptions to a king Antigonus [1]. Not to be confused with a…

Ap(p)uleius

(3,219 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmerman, Maaike (Groningen)
Plebeian gentile name (on form and distribution [1], ThLL 2, 291). The poet  Apuleius [III, of Madaura] I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A. Real-estate dealer (1st cent. BC) Late Republican real-estate dealer ( praediator) (Cic. Att. 5,11,16; 12,4,2; 12,17). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A. Proscribed in 43 BC Proscribed in 43 BC but escaped (App. B Civ. 4,166). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 427. [German version] [I 3] A., L. People's tribune in 391 BC People's tribune in 391 BC, whose complaint supposedly caused M…

Scaevola

(303 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Probably originally a Roman family name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed'), in the Republican period in the Mucii family (Mucius [I 2; 4-10; II 2]); for the legend of origin see Mucius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Q. Cervidius S. Roman lawyer, 2nd cent. Roman lawyer, who under Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) was a member of his consilium (SHA Aur. 11,10) and from AD 175 was praef. vigilum (CIL XIV 4502); he also remained active under Commodus and Septimius Severus (until c. AD 200) [5. 113 f.]. As a respondent with a practical bent he wrote Digesta

Longus

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Author of 'Daphnis and Chloe' (Λόγγος; Lóngos). We have no information about the person who wrote the most famous Greek novel, ‘Daphnis and Chloe’: the name L. in the MSS is typically Roman and frequently attested on Lesbos, the island where the action of the novel takes place, but Roman names were very common among Greeks in the Imperial period. Also as far as the dating of the work is concerned, we only have few indications which leave room for doubt. The refinement of the tale con…

Albinovanus

(212 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] P. (1st cent BC) P. (?), one of the accusers of P. Sestius 56 BC de vi (Cic. Vatin. 3,41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Legate 82 BC P., legate (?) of C. Norbanus in 82 BC (App. B Civ. 1,91). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] P., pontifex minor (middle of 1st cent. BC) P., pontifex minor before 69 BC until after 57 (MRR 2,71; 135; 3,14) identical with [1] or [2] ? Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Celsus, private secretary of the young  Tiberius Celsus, private secretary ( comes scribaque) of th…

Hortensius

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably derived not from hortus but from the place names Hortense, Hortenses [1. 660; 2. 175; 177; 534]. The first definitely attested bearer of the name is H. [4], the most prominent member the orator H. [7]. Family tree: [3. 75]. [German version] [1] H., L. Praetor 170 BC As praetor in 170 BC commanded the fleet in the third Macedonian War (honours in Athens: IG II2 907, and Delos: IDélos III 461 Aa 83). He conquered Abdera, sold its population into slavery, and oppressed Chalcis, but had to rescind his orders by instruction o…

Arrius

(618 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin gentile name of Italian origin. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. (1st half of 1st cent. BC) Made fun of by Catull (Carm. 84) due to affected pronunciation. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., C. Neighbour of Cicero Neighbour of Cicero at his Formianum (Cic. Att. 2.14.2; 15.3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] A., L. City praetor of Cales City praetor of Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor in 73 BC Praetor in 73 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-423. …

Pythodorus

(519 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
(Πυθόδωρος/ Pythódōros). [German version] [1] Athenian, paved the way (in 411BC) for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 Athenian who, according to [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 29,1-2 (cf. Thuc. 8,67,1), in 411 BC made a motion in the public assembly to elect a further 20 'preliminary counselors' ( próbouloi) to draw up proposals for saving the state. He thus paved the way for the oligarchic constitution of the 400 ( tetrakósioi ). Diog. Laert. 9,54 (= Diels/Kranz 80 A 1) names him as the prosecutor of Protagoras [1]. P. may be identical with the …

Annius

(2,226 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Latin, in Rome a plebeian gentilicium, which also occurs in Etruscan and Oscan inscriptions [1]. The Etruscan king Anius, after whom the  Anio was supposedly named (Plut. Mor. 315E-F), is a scholarly invention. In Rome Annii were active from the 3rd cent. BC in public life, produced in the 2nd cent. from the family of the Lusci two consuls and were notorious in the 1st cent. because of T.  A. [14] Milo. In the imperial era the name is widespread, various families are present (e.g. cognomina: Bas…

Deductio

(345 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Legal term There are many different senses of deductio in specialized legal language: in civil case-law the expression in iudicium deducere usually indicates the transition of the dispute to the judgement stage, and so approximately corresponds to the modern concept of pendency. Deductio in domum is the ceremonial introduction of a wife into her husband's house (Dig. 23,2,5). A further frequent use of deductio is to denote the ‘deduction’ of specific components of a debt owed to a provider of services: for example the deduction of costs (D…

Lupus

(214 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] [1] Roman proper name Rare Roman proper name (‘Wolf’) [3. 115], quite common as a cognomen, in the Republican period of L. Cornelius [I 51] Lentulus L. ( cos. in 16 BC) and more widespread among the Rutilii in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 257 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 327 3 Schulze. [German version] [2] Poet Is named by Ovid (Pont. 4,16,26) as the author of a poem about the return of Menelaus [1] and Helene [1] from Troy. It may be that L. is identical with the orator P. Rutilius Lupus or …

Aelia

(294 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Second wife of Sulla Second wife of Sulla (Plut. Sull. 6,20). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Galla Wife of one Postumus (Augustan period) Wife of one Postumus = ? C. Propertius Postumus, Prop. 3,12,38; related to members of the senatorial Aelii of the Augustan period [1; 2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Paetina, second wife of  Claudius Ae. Paetina. Probably daughter of Sex. Aelius Catus; second wife of  Claudius, who separated from her (Suet. Claud. 26,2). They had a daughter  Antonia [5].  Narcissus …

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Fufidius

(223 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a plebeian family (further development of Fufius [1]), prominent in Arpinum, the home town of Cicero. [German version] [1] Rom. eques, 1st cent. BC Roman equestrian, in 57 BC creditor to Apollonia in Illyria (Cic. Pis. 86). Possibly identical with the F. from whom Cicero bought a country estate in Arpinum for his brother in 54 (Ad Q. fr. 3,1,3), who appointed Cicero joint heir in 47 (Att. 11,13,3) and whom Horace attacked as a profiteer (Sat. 1,2,12-22). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Nicolet 2, 882f. [German version] [2] F., L. Propraetor 80 BC Allegedly ex-centurio (O…

Sacerdos

(465 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Name Rare Roman cognomen (‘priest’), in the Republican period attested for the Licinii (Licinius [I 41]), in the Imperial period for Marius Plotius [II 5] Claudius S. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 319. [German version] [2] Priest (plur. sacerdotes). The second part of the Latin word is derived from the Indo-European *dhe- (cf. Greek tithénai, Lat. facere, English do): a sacerdos was thus 'someone who performed sacra '. Sacerdotes became the umbrella term for all religious functionaries, but its meaning as a tech…

Afranius

(936 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Stärk, Ekkehard (Leipzig)
Plebeian tribe, from which senatorial representatives already emerged in the 2nd cent. BC. [German version] [1] L., homo novus, consul 60 BC L., homo novus, supporter of Pompey, distinguished himself as his legate 77-73 (?) BC in the war against Sertorius (Plut. Sert. 19,3 ff.); 72 (?) praetor, 71-67 (?) as proconsul in Spain (conquest of Calagurris, triumph). 66-62 legate in the war against Mithridates. With the support of Pompey, he became consul together with Q. Caecilius Metellus Celer in 60 BC. In 55, sent by Pomp…

Anicius

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Name of a family that came from Praeneste, which is documented there already in the Republican era. An Anician achieved the consulate in 160 BC (see [I 4]), but otherwise the tribe does not distinguish itself again in the Republic. In the imperial era, however, the gens blossomed; from the post-Diocletian era until the 4th cent. AD as an urban Roman family, and then, continued by the members of the female line, emerged as Christian aristocracy of great significance in the 5th cent [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A., C. Senator (middle of the …

Optatus

(565 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen (“child desired by parents”), very widespread in the Imperial period; equally commonly a slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 75; 77; 296 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, vol. 1, 1994, 110-111. [German version] [2] Flavius O. Imperial grammar teacher, 4th cent. AD Grammar teacher of the son of the emperor Licinius [II 4]. Allegedly, because of his wife's beauty he had great influence under Constantine [1] the Great and was appointed consul b…

Gracchus

(182 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen probably of Etruscan origin, as a praenomen passed down for the Aequian king G. Cloelius in 458 BC (Liv. 3,25,5). As cognomen prominent in the family of the Sempronii, especially with the people's tribunes Ti. and C.  Sempronius Gracchus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Writer of Lat. tragedies Writer of Latin tragedies ( Thyestes, Atalanta, Peliades), only a short fragment of each is extant (for Inc. inc. fab. 120-124 2R see [4]); Ov. Pont. 4,16,31 names him together with L.  Varius Rufus in a catalogue of contemporary writers. This…
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