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Abū ʿUthmān al-Dimashqī

(1,184 words)

Author(s): Endress, Gerhard
Abū ʿUthmān Saʿīd b. Yaʿqūb al-Dimashqī (d. after 302/914) was a physician and a translator of Greek scientific and philosophical works into Arabic. As one of the leading physicians of his time, he enjoyed the favour of the wazīr ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā Ibn al-Jarrāḥ (d. 334/946). When the latter endowed a hospital in the Ḥarbiyya quarter of Baghdad in 302/914–15, he appointed Abū ʿUthmān as chief physician, with the added responsibility of supervising the hospitals of Baghdad, Mecca, and Medina (Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, 1:123, according to Thābit b. Sinān; cf. Ibn al-Jawzī, al-Muntaẓam, ed. Fritz Krenk…
Date: 2021-07-19

Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī

(167 words)

Author(s): Endreß, Gerhard
[English Version] Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī, Abū Zakarīyāʾ (893 Takrit – 974 Bagdad), christl.-arab. Philosoph und Theologe, Übersetzer und Kommentator des Aristoteles, Apologet des christl. Glaubens gegenüber dem Islam und Verfechter der monophysitischen Christologie gegenüber dem Nestorianismus. Als Vermittler der aristotelischen Quellen, v.a. der Logik, Ontologie und Physik, als Lehrmeister der Logik – hier als Schüler des Nestorianers Abū Bišr Mattā ibn Yūnus – und als Autor einer rationalistischen Ethik wu…

Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī, Abū Zakarīyāʾ

(181 words)

Author(s): Endreß, Gerhard
[German Version] (893, Takrit – 974, Baghdad), Arab Christian philosopher and theologian, translator and commentator on Aristotle, apologist of the Christian faith vis-à-vis Islam, and champion of Monophysite Christology against Nestorianism. As a mediator of the Aristotelian sources, especially logic, ontology, and physics, as a teacher of logic – in this case a follower and transmitter of the Nestorian Abū Bišr ¶ Mattā ibn Yūnus –, and as author of a compendium of rationalistic ethics, he came to be the leading authority of Arabic Aris…


(239 words)

Author(s): Endreß, Gerhard
[German Version] (Syro-Aram. Bēt Lāpāṭ), a city in Khusistan (southern Persia), was a center of Christian Hellenism in Sasanian Persia, especially important for its role in medical tradition. It was founded c. 260 by the Sasanian Šāhpūr I as a place to settle Greek prisoners of war; it soon became a Nestorian episcopal and metropolitan see. Its initial period of scientific eminence was associated with Khosrau I (531–579). There is also evidence of a theological school from the 6th century onward. …

Mattā ibn Yūnus, Abū Bišr

(177 words)

Author(s): Endreß, Gerhard
[German Version] (died 940), a Nestorian Christian from Dayr Qunnā, translated the works of Aristotle and his Greek commentators into Arabic, and taught Aristotelian logic in Baghdad. Together with his Christian disciples (including Yaḥyā ibn ʿAdī, died 974) he completed the translation work of the preceding century and passed Aristotelian philosophy on to their Muslim successors. Hence the Organon of logic, along with the fundamental works of natural philosophy and metaphysics, including the epistemology of the Analytica posteriora in its first complete translation, bec…

Kindī, Abū Yūsuf Ya'qūb ibn Isḥāq al-

(194 words)

Author(s): Endreß, Gerhard
[German Version] (died c. 870) was an Arab scientist and philosopher at the court of the ʿAbbāsids in Baghdad. He absorbed the Hellenistic tradition of science in Arabic and laid the foundations for a philosophy of Islam. He encouraged the translation of Greek sources into Arabic (incl. Arist. Metaph. and texts from Neoplatonism under Aristotle's name), while his own numerous works dealt with topics of natural science (alchemy, mineralogy), pharmacy, applied mathematics (esp. optics), astronomy and astrology, cosmology, and psychology. As a p…

Averroes, Ibn Rušd

(545 words)

Author(s): Endreß, Gerhard
[German Version] (1126, Córdoba – 1198, Marrakesh), Spanish-Latin for “Ibn Rušd” (Abūl-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad) was an Islamic legal scholar, philosopher and physician; through his Aristotle commentary, he was the most important mediator of Arabic Aristotelianism to medieval Europe. As a judge and teacher, he was a respected authority on Islamic law. His majo…

Ḥunain ibn Isḥāq

(229 words)

Author(s): Endreß, Gerhard
[German Version] (Lat.: Johannitius; 808, al-Ḥīra – 873, Baghdad). Ḥunain was a Christian-Arabic physician and translator of Greek scientific writings into Aramaic and Arabic. A Nestorian (Syria) from al-Ḥīra (Mesopotamia), he studied in Baghdad under physicians from the Persian Gondēšāpūr, especially with Yūḥannā ibn Māsawaih (died 857). He then traveled as far as Constantinople to study languages and textual sources, after his return to Baghdad becoming the court physician of the caliph al-Mutaw…

Aristotle, Reception of

(1,226 words)

Author(s): Aubenque, Pierre | Endreß, Gerhard
[German Version] I. General – II. Islam I. General External circumstances hindered the reception of Aristotelian thought after the death of Aristotle. For the Greek situation, the most suitable site for reception and further consideration would have been the Aristotelian school, the so-called Lyceum or Peripatos. With the exception of Aristotle's immediate successor,…


(15,859 words)

Author(s): Nagel, Tilman | Ende, Werner | Radtke, Bernd | Rudolph, Ulrich | Krawietz, Birgit | Et al.
[German Version] I. Origin and Spread – II. Doctrine – III. Islamic Philosophy – IV. Islamic Art (Architecture and Book Art) – V. Islamic Studies – VI. Christianity and Islam – VII. Judaism and Islam – VIII. Islam in Europe – IX. Islam in North America – X. Political Islamism I. Origin and Spread 1. Muḥammad and his message In 569 ce, Muḥammad was born in Mecca, a city with the shrine of the Kaʿba at its center. Mecca enjoyed good relations with the Sasanian Empire and its Arab vassal princes in Ḥīra, but considered itself politically independen…