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Leibethra

(156 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λείβεθρα; Leíbethra). Macedonian city between Dion [II 2] and Heracleon [2] near modern Leptokarya (cf. Str. 7, fr. 18); its territorium bordered on Gonni [1. no. 2]. In the 3rd cent. BC, L. was considered to be autonomous as it received Delphian theōroí (‘envoys’) [2. 17 l. 52], but it obviously became merged with the Roman colony of Dion [II 2] (CIL III 591). According to Str. 9,2,25, L. was sacred to the Muses; Pausanias heard in Larisa the story that Orpheus had been buried in L. but after a severe flood his bones h…

Drabescus

(79 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δράβησκος; Drábēskos). City of the Edones near Zdravik c. 12 km north of  Amphipolis, where the Athenians were defeated by the Thracians in c. 465 BC (Thuc. 1,100,4). Traces of settlement are existing up into the Roman Imperial period, when D. was a station on the via Egnatia (Tab. Peut.: Daravescos). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 391f. TIR K 35,1, 25.

Perrhaebi

(184 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Περραιβοί; Perrhaiboí). Tribe on the western slopes of Olympus [1] on the border between Thessalia and Macedonia. Still independent in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,749) , in the 5th cent. BC they were dependent on the Thessali, particularly on Larisa [3], as tributary períoikoi (Thuc. 4,78,6; Str. 9,5,19). From the period of their independence they retained two votes in the Delphic Amphictyonic Council  ( Amphiktyonía ), until Philip [4] II took one vote from them (346 BC). With Thessalia, the P. belonged to the Macedonian Kingdom unt…

Morrylus

(86 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Μόρρυλος/ Mόrrylos). City in Macedonian Crestonia (Macedonia) near modern Ano Apostoloi, known from inscriptions no earlier than the Hellenistic period, later also mentioned in Plin. HN 4,35 and Ptol. 3,13,38. M. had city status in the 3rd cent. BC and received theoroí (‘festival envoys’) from Delphi [1. 18 Z. 84]. M. sustained a significant cult of Asclepius. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography 1 A. Plassart, Liste delphique des théorodoques, in: BCH 45, 1921, 1-85. M.B. Chatzopoulos, L.D. Loukopoulou, M. Cité de la Crestonie (Meletem…

Paeones, Paeonia

(200 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Παίονες/ Paíones, Παιονία/ Paionía). Large tribe under its own king, inhabiting the north of the area later known as Macedonia, particularly in the valley of the Axius and the surrounding mountain regions as far as the Strymon (Thuc. 2,98,2; Str. 7,5,1). Hom. Il. 848-50 knew of the P. as friends of the Trojans; in c. 500 BC, the P. around Lake Prasias were temporarily deported to Phrygia by the Persian Megabazus (Hdt. 5,16) [1]. In 359 BC, P. attacked the Macedonians, but they were defeated and subjugated by Philip [4] II (Diod. Sic…

Beroea

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Βέροια; Béroia). [German version] [1] In Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In Macedonia. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] A. Hellenistic and Roman periods City in Macedonian  Bottice, east of the Bermium; now Verria. First mentioned in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 1,61,4), B. had its development, like many Macedonian cities, principally in the Hellenistic period; the Antigonids seem to have particularly favoured…

Lydias

(78 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λυδίας; Lydías). Navigable river in Macedon (supplied by the nowadays dried Lake Loudias), which connected Pella with the sea (Str. 7, fr. 20; 22). Mentioned already by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 147 and Scyl. 66. The mouth appears to have shifted to the north in antiquity, since Hdt. 7,127 reports a common mouth of the L. and the Haliacmon. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 101f., 125 map 2.

Doberus

(75 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Δόβηρος; Dóbēros). City in Paeonia, probably in the valley of the Strymon. Place of assembly for Sitalces' assault on the Macedonian kingdom in 432 BC (Thuc. 2,98,2). Absorbed into Macedon (possibly under Philip II), D. became a civitas of the Roman province of Macedonia (Plin. HN 4,35). Pillaged by the Goths in AD 267 (Zos. 1,43); diocese (Council of Chalcedon). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 328f.

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Gonnus, Gonni

(151 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Γόννος; Gónnos, Γόννοι; Gónnoi). Town of the  Perrhaebi, located on three hills to the north of the Peneius at the western entry to the Tempe valley. Evidence of settlement dates back to the Neolithic. In historical times, after initial domination by Larissa, the town gained in strategic importance in the course of the 4th cent. BC, following Philip II's conquest of Thessalia. It became a Macedonian fortress with a garrison and influx of Macedonian population, and experienced a peri…

Lete

(207 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λητή; Lētḗ). Strategically located city in Macedonia/Mygdonia near modern Liti, minted coins already before the city became Macedonian in the 5th cent. BC [1. 67-72]. In the 4th cent. BC recognized as a city within Macedonia (SEG 36,331 l. 19), L. kept a cult site for Demeter [2. 44 no. 123]. As an autonomous Macedonian city L. received Delphian theōroí (‘envoys’) in the 3rd cent. [3. 18 l. 73], as part of the Roman province Macedonia, L. honoured the quaestor M. Annius in 117 BC because of his aid against marauding Celts (Syll.3 700), but was obviously still threatened…

Bermium

(51 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βέρμιον; Bérmion). Mountain in the south of  Macedonia, west of Emathia (now Doxa) and east of Beroea [1]. From here the Macedonians penetrated Lower Macedonia (Hdt. 8,138). B. is said to have been the home of the Thracian  Bryges (Str. 7 fr. 25). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)

Aegae

(587 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
[German version] [1] Residence and burial place of the Macedonian Argead kings This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Dark Ages | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Education / Culture (Aegeae, Αἰγαί, Αἰγέαι [ Aigaí, Aigéai]). Residence and burial place of the Macedonian Argead kings near present-day Vergina. Starting point for the Macedonian conquering of Pieria and  Bottiaea and main seat of the king until  Pella was expanded for this purpose in the 4th cent. BC. From then onwards the site…

Bolbe

(76 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Βόλβη; Bólbē). Marshy lake in the Mygdonian depression (Macedonia) on the land route running, on a west-east axis, from Thessalonica to Amphipolis that was also used by the via Egnatia to the south.  Apollonia [3] and Arethusa [8] were among the larger cities on the shoreline of the lake. Steph. Byz. (s.v. B.) mentions a city B.; a fortress named Bolbus was restored under Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,4,43). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)

Pimpleia

(70 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Πίμπλεια; Pímpleia). Village on the Macedonian coast in the territory of Dion [II 2], also Pipleia (cf. Hesych. s.v. Πίπλειαι; Varro Ling. 7,20), c. 3 km to the south of modern Dion. Orpheus is supposed to have lived in P. (Str. 7a,1,17f.), the place is supposed to have been dedicated to the Muses (Str. 9,2,25). Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography F. Papazoglou, Les villes de Macédoine, 1988, 112.

Xylopolis

(23 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ξυλόπολις; Xylopolis). Settlement at Mygdonia [1] in Macedonia (Plin. HN. 4,35; Ptol. 3,13,36), not located. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)

Prasias limne

(51 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Πρασιὰς λίμνη; Prasiàs límnē). Lake in the Strymon valley (modern Limni Kerkinis in Greece). The Paeones lived there in palafittes as Hdt. 5,15 f. describes them. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography N. G. L. Hammond, A History of Macedonia, vol. 1, 1972, 193 f.  Müller, 89 f.

Pydna

(422 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Punic Wars (Πύδνα; Pýdna). Greek seaport on the coast of Pieria in Macedonia to the north of Cape Atherida (Macedonia, with maps). As early as the 5th cent. BC, P. was considered to belong to Macedonia (Thuc. 1,137,2: “ἐς Πύδναν τὴν Ἀλεξάνδρου”, referring to king Alexander [II 2] of Macedonia). In 432 BC, P. was besieged by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,61,2 f.); in 410, it was final…

Thessalonica

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Θεσσαλονίκη/ Thessaloníkē). [German version] [1] City in Thessalia This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome (Latin Thessalonica, -nice; today also T.) Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] I. Location, Classical Period City on the Thermaic Gulf (Thermaios Kolpos) with a favourable natural harbour and best connections with the hin…

Axius

(246 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich)
[I] (Ἄξιος; Áxios). Largest river in  Macedonia, today Vardar; rises in Sar Planina and flows into the Aegean to the west of Thessalonica. Barely navigable owing to its gorges, the A. valley does, however, form the main overland route between the Aegean and the region around the Danube, a route which has been in use from the time of antiquity and is still used today. The A. flowed through the settlement territories of the Dardani, the Paeones and the Macedones (Amphaxitis). [II] Plebeian gentile name, mentioned in records since the 3rd cent. BC and possibly connected with th…
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