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Phonological Change

(2,353 words)

Author(s): Eugenio R. Luján
Abstract Phonetic changes can bring about phonological changes, i.e. alterations in the phonological system of a language, either in the number of phonemes and/or in the nature of the relations between those phonemes. The results can be of three major types: phonologization (phonemic addition), dephonologization (phonemic loss), and transphonologization (rephonemization). These alterations in the phonological system of a language are usually the result of one or more of the following processes: c…
Date: 2014-01-27

Polysemy

(891 words)

Author(s): Eugenio R. Luján
Abstract Polysemy is the property of any element of language of having different meanings. Usually it is dealt with in the study of lexical semantics, but it is also found in grammatical morphemes and word formation patterns. The limits of polysemy and homonymy are not straightforward and what originally were two meanings of a polysemous word can be perceived by the speakers as two different words. Due to the cognitive organization of the human mind, polysemy is inherent to language at various le…
Date: 2013-11-01

Sentence

(2,209 words)

Author(s): Eugenio R. Luján
Abstract A sentence is usually defined as a sequence of connected words in speech or writing that constitute the complete grammatical expression of a thought. For modern linguistic theory, however, the definition of sentence is rather controversial and in recent years certain linguists have even abandoned it as a unit of linguistic analysis. Sentences must be distinguished from other units of syntactic analysis, like clauses and utterances. In recent studies it has been argued that the sentence i…
Date: 2013-11-01

Relative Clauses

(4,619 words)

Author(s): Eugenio R. Luján
Abstract Relative clauses are characterized in Greek by the following features: a) they contain a finite verbal form; b) they have a relative marker (pronoun, adjective or adverbial) that links its clause to another one (the main clause). The most common relative pronoun in Greek is hós, hḗ, , but the originally anaphoric pronoun , hḗ, has also been grammaticalized as a relative in certain dialects. Greek has also other relative pronouns with a more specific meaning, as well as a number of relative adjectives and adverbials. There are no spe…
Date: 2014-01-22

Temporal Clauses

(2,259 words)

Author(s): Eugenio R. Luján
Abstract Temporal clauses are subordinate clauses that express the reference time with respect to which the main clause must be interpreted. They usually have a finite verbal form, but with some markers the infinitive can instead be selected. Functionally, temporal clauses are equivalent to time adverbials or to prepositional phrases with temporal meaning. They tend to appear in an iconical order with respect to the main clause: temporal clauses referring to a prior event usually appear before th…
Date: 2014-01-22