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Marcus Magus

(168 words)

Author(s): Förster, Niclas
[German Version] Marcus Magus, Gnostic. Between 160 and 180 ce, Marcus founded a group of Valentinian Gnostics (Valentinianism) and worked as an itinerant theological teacher in the setting of the Anatolian church. A summary of his system is provided by Irenaeus of Lyon in his Haer. I 14–16, along with an account of ¶ the cultic rites of the Marcosians in I 13. Irenaeus also cites a parodic poem about Marcus as a source in I 15.6. His description of the rite of apolytrosis is corrected by Hipp. Haer. VI 42.1 on the basis of information from contemporary Marcosian circles, who in tu…

Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…