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Apollinare

(46 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Possibly an area set aside in the prata Flaminia, Rome (Liv. 3, 63, 7), for the worship of Apollo, in which 431 BC a temple of Apollo had been erected in circo. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 12 F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 48.

Basilica Sempronia

(71 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica on the north side of the  Forum Romanum in Rome, erected by  Sempronius Gracchus (censor in 169 BC). The house of P. Scipio Africanus and the tabernae veteres previously stood on the basilica's building lots, which were purchased with public funds. Remains from this sequence of buildings may have been uncovered under the  Basilica Iulia. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography I. Iacopi, in: LTUR 1, 187-188 Richardson, 56.

Colossus Neronis

(260 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Colossus Solis). C. 40 m high, bronze portrait statue of Nero in Rome (Plin. HN 34,45; Suet. Nero 31; Mart. epigr. 2), conceived as a counterpart to his 120 foot high portrait on canvas in the horti Maiani (Plin. HN 35,51), near the vestibulum of the   domus aurea . The commissioned artist was  Zenodorus; Pliny visited his workshop and saw a clay model of the Colossus Neronis (HN 34,46). After the   damnatio memoriae of Nero, the colossus was transformed into a statue of Sol (Plin. HN 34,45; Suet. Vesp. 18); according to another tr…

Ager Vaticanus

(102 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Territory on the right bank of the Tiber (Plin. HN 3, 54; Liv. 10, 26,15) below the confluence of the Cremera. The area was used for farming and, just as the quality of its wines (Mart. 1, 18, 2; 6, 92, 3; 10, 45, 5; 12, 48, 14), was regarded as poor (Cic. Leg. agr. 2, 96). In the areas close to Rome, horti ( Gardens) were established in the 1st cent. BC, which later became imperial possessions. The more distant areas remained farmland up to late antiquity (Symmachus, Ep. 6, 58, 1). Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 405.

Basilica Opimia

(124 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] It was erected by the consul A.L. Opimius in 121 BC in Rome simultaneously with the Temple of Concordia, and was torn down possibly when the latter was rebuilt by Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10. No relics are extant, which complicates the effort to localize the Basilica Opimia (BO) relative to the Temple of Concordia in the vicinity (Varro, Ling. 5, 156). We can therefore hardly determine whether we are dealing with an independent basilica or with only a room that had similar fun…

Atrium Libertatis

(136 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Building to the north-east of the Forum Iulium, used under the Republic as the office of the  censors, whose documents were kept there along with the texts of various statutes (Liv. 43,16,13; 45,15,5); in exceptional circumstances it was also the meeting place of the Senate. In 193 BC a porticus was erected from the nearby Porta Fontinalis to the altar of Mars on the  Campus Martius, where the census was held (Liv. 35,10,12). Extended in 194 BC (Liv. 34,44,5), the Atrium Libertati…

Aqua Marcia

(334 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Erected in 144-140 BC by praetor urbanus Q. Marcius Rex who had been commissioned by the Senate to repair the Aqua Appia and Anio Vetus (Plin. HN 36, 121; Frontin. Aq. 7). It brought the coolest and purest water of all Roman city aqueducts right to the Capitol (Plin. HN 31, 41;  Roma;  Water supply). Repairs were carried out in 33 BC by Agrippa, in 11-4 BC by Augustus (Frontin. Aq. 9; 125), AD 79 Titus (CIL 6, 1246), by Hadrian, in 196 by Septimius Severus (CIL 6, 1247) and 212/13 Carac…

Basilica Aemilia

(292 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Common designation for the basilica on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome; it was first known also as  Basilica Fulvia (Varro, Ling. lat. 6, 4) or Basilica Aemilia et Fulvia (Liv. 40, 51, 5), and from 55 BC on it was called  Basilica Paulli as well (Plut. Caes. 29). The designation of Basilica Aemilia (BA) is a result of the increased number of building projects by the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34, 14 BC, also in AD 22). The differences in scholarly opinion about this building are rooted in the different views on the building activities of L.  Aem…

Caelemontium

(112 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] As regio II of the Augustan division of Rome (CIL XV 7190; for the preceding period, see Varro, Ling. lat. 5, 46), C. corresponds largely with the  Caelius Mons. Its expansion probably coincided with the slopes of the hill: in the west, it bordered  the Palatine, in the east it is questionable whether the Lateran was included. To the south, its approximate boundary is marked by the modern via delle Terme di Caracalla, and to the north, it was succeeded by regio III with the later Colosseum, at about the line of the modern via dei SS. Quattro Coronati. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) B…

Basilica Neptuni

(191 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] A building in Rome restored by Hadrian (SHA Hadr. 19,10), possibly the reconstruction of the Poseidonion that had burned down in 80 BC under Titus. The building, now partially covered by the modern Via della Palombella, is located directly south of the Pantheon and west of the Porticus Argonautorum. The main room was a hall of about 45 × 20 m with a round alcove which probably housed a colossal statue. The short sides of the hall are narrower and hold rectangular alcoves, the long…

Columna

(172 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Antonini Pii see  Columns, monumental Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) [German version] [2] Maenia Monumental columns ( Columns, monumental( erected in 318 BC, during the censorship of the plebeian, C. Maenius, consul in 338 BC, in the context of a major renovation of the  Forum Romanum in Rome (Plin. HN 34,20; Fest. 120L; Isid. Orig. 15,3,11); near the curia Hostilia (Cic. Sest. 8,18 et Schol Bob. ad loc.; 58,124 et Schol. Bob. ad loc.) in the area of the later arch of Septimius Severus. Defaulting debtors were denounced here by their c…

Basilica Fulvia

(255 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Built in Rome in 179 BC on instruction from the censors M. Aemilius Lepidus and M. Fulvius Nobilior (Liv. 40, 51, 2f.). It is possible that a previous building from 210 BC was incorporated (Plaut. Capt. 815; Plaut. Curc. 472). In 78 BC, the consul in office, M. Aemilius Lepidus, intervened in the construction (Plin. HN 35, 13);  Basilica Aemilia. H. Bauer developed an outline of the basic shape based on sparse structural remnants. Judging from the north-east corner of its foundation, the portico was located in front of the tabernae and ran 3 m behind the portico from …

Domus Aurea

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] As the successor building of the   domus transitoria , which was destroyed in the fire of AD 64, the domus aurea (DA) was still uncompleted at the time of Otho (Suet., Otho 7). Its main aspects were the extensive expropriation and inclusion of public space and the mobilization of all technical and artistic means in shaping an artificial world. After Nero's death the main areas, apart from the Palatine, were systematically returned to public use by the Flavians and Hadrian. The DA included the Palatine, the Oppius, the Caelius and the Velia. The city wall of th…

Basilica Hilariana

(149 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica Hilariana (BH), located within the modern Villa Celimontana on the Piazza della Navicella in Rome, was first discovered through its mosaic with the caption revealing its name. Close by, the base of a statue of Manius Publicus Hilarus was found, who had erected the building for the members of a cultic society. The statue had been a donation from the priests of the Cybele. Since 1987, an area of 30 × 35 m has been uncovered. Stamped bricks reveal that the BH dates to th…

Basilica Iulia

(213 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The Basilica lulia (BI) in Rome takes up the area between the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of the Dioscuri, bordered to the west by the vicus Iugarius and to the east by the vicus Tuscus. It was built on top of the  Basilica Sempronia as well as the house underneath, which was owned supposedly by Scipio Africanus. Remnants of both houses were found. The new BI also displaced the tabernae veteres and it is likely that the bordering streets had to be moved as well. Construction began in the year 54 BC ( Basilica Aemilia) and was completed by Augustus…

Basilica Paulli

(365 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Considered ‘one of the most beautiful buildings in the world’ (Plin. HN 36,102), it took the place of the  Basilica Fulvia on the north-east corner of the  Forum Romanum in Rome (Stat. Silv. 1,1,30) but showed certain differences to the latter in its ground plan. It was restored by members of the gens Aemilia (78, 54, 34 and 14 BC, as well as under Tiberius in AD 22.; cf.  Basilica Aemilia), also after the fires of AD 283 and again in the early 5th cent. Initial excavations were performed in 1898-1914. In 1922-1940, the series of tabernae in front and the wall separating the…

Esquiliae

(629 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] General term for the hills Cispius and Oppius in  Rome (Varro, Ling. 5,49). Here was the end of the plateau that extended to the Anio; and from it important aqueducts (Anio vetus 270 BC, Aqua Marcia 144 BC, Aqua Claudia and Anio novus AD 52) led into the city. The Anio novus that was incorporated into the Porta Maggiore is particularly impressive. A hasty and exhaustive redevelopment started in 1870/71 caused large-scale exposure and destruction, with which the documentation process could not keep pace; as a result, the considerable number o…

Campus Agrippae

(89 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Part of the   campus Martius in Rome; according to the Constantinian regionaries, it was located in regio VII to the right of the via Flaminia and north of the aqua Virgo; originally belonging to Agrippa, it was given to the Roman people by Augustus in 7 BC (Cass. Dio 55,8). According to one of the fragments of the acta fratrum Arvalium from AD 38, it was also the location of the Tiberian ara Providentiae. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 217 Richardson, 64.

Basilica Argentaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica in the city of Rome, mentioned in Constantine's time (cur. register VIII), also designated as basilica vascularia (CIL 9, 3821) on an inscription; the name probably stems from silver merchants who resided there ( argentarii vascularii; schol. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 53). The Basilica Argentaria (BA) connected the south-western exedra of the Forum of Trajan to the Forum of Caesar, whose north-western hall formed a continuation of the BA on higher ground level following two sets of stairs. The naves of the BA were orientated along the halls of the Forum of …

Campus Martius

(555 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Field of Mars). Tract of land in Rome, shaped like an irregular quadrangle, between the Palazzo Venezia, S. Carlo al Corso, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, and the Piazza Cairoli. According to legend, with the foundation of the Republic, the campus Martius (CM) passed from Tarquinian (Dion. Hal. 5,13,2) to public ownership (Liv. 2,5,2; Plut. Poblicola 8,1). The level terrain, not fragmented by private property, was predestined for monumental architecture for public or representative purposes, as in Strabo's (5,3,8). desc…
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