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Campus Agrippae

(89 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Part of the   campus Martius in Rome; according to the Constantinian regionaries, it was located in regio VII to the right of the via Flaminia and north of the aqua Virgo; originally belonging to Agrippa, it was given to the Roman people by Augustus in 7 BC (Cass. Dio 55,8). According to one of the fragments of the acta fratrum Arvalium from AD 38, it was also the location of the Tiberian ara Providentiae. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography F. Coarelli, in: LTUR 1, 217 Richardson, 64.

Basilica Argentaria

(198 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Basilica in the city of Rome, mentioned in Constantine's time (cur. register VIII), also designated as basilica vascularia (CIL 9, 3821) on an inscription; the name probably stems from silver merchants who resided there ( argentarii vascularii; schol. Hor. Epist. 1, 1, 53). The Basilica Argentaria (BA) connected the south-western exedra of the Forum of Trajan to the Forum of Caesar, whose north-western hall formed a continuation of the BA on higher ground level following two sets of stairs. The naves of the BA were orientated along the halls of the Forum of …

Campus Martius

(555 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Field of Mars). Tract of land in Rome, shaped like an irregular quadrangle, between the Palazzo Venezia, S. Carlo al Corso, the Ponte Vittorio Emanuele, and the Piazza Cairoli. According to legend, with the foundation of the Republic, the campus Martius (CM) passed from Tarquinian (Dion. Hal. 5,13,2) to public ownership (Liv. 2,5,2; Plut. Poblicola 8,1). The level terrain, not fragmented by private property, was predestined for monumental architecture for public or representative purposes, as in Strabo's (5,3,8). desc…

Aequimelium

(96 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Non-built-up district in Rome, regio VIII, in the south of the Forum Boarium near the northern foothills of the capitol. According to a widespread tradition (Varro, Ling. 5, 157; Liv. 4, 16, 1; Cic. Dom. 101; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 12, 4; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; Quint. Inst. 3, 7, 20), the house of the rich grain merchant Sp. Maelius was demolished here in 432 BC by order of the senate because he was said to have aspired to kingship. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 3 G. Pisani Sartorio, in: LTUR 1, 21.

Basilica Constantiniana

(195 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] (Basilica Nova; Basilica of Maxentius). The Basilica Constantiniana (BC) in Rome was begun by Maxentius and completed by Constantine (Aur. Vict. Caes. 40, 26), and is reminiscent of early republican local tradition in the area of the Velia. The base area of 100 × 65 m is dominated by a nave measuring 80 × 25 m. The middle aisle can be entered through five doors from a low entrance hall on the eastern narrow side and it ends in a western apse containing an acrolithic statue of seat…

Cloaca maxima

(252 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The invention of the cloacae (Str. 5,8; Plin. HN 36,24) is stressed in ancient literature as one of the greatest achievements of civilization; Pliny (HN 36,105) ascribes it to  Tarquinius Priscus, others (Liv. 1,38,6; 1,56,2; Dion. Hal. 3,67,5; 4,44,1) to  Tarquinius Superbus. The edifice designated in Roman literature as Cloaca maxima (CM) (Liv. 1,56,2; Varro, Ling. 5,157) has not been located with certainty, but is generally identified which the largest sewage canal in Rome, preserv…

Domus transitoria

(428 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] In the period of his reign before the great fire of AD 64, which was followed by the building of the   domus aurea , Nero combined the horti Maecenatis on the Esquiline ( Esquiliae) with the palatial buildings on the Palatine ( Mons Palatinus) (Suet. Nero 31; Tac. Ann. 15,39). Preserved are a building section of the domus Tiberiana, walls at the sunken peristyle as well as under the aula regia and the cenatio Iovis of the later Flavian palace. The affinity of an elaborate vaulted hall in the terraces of the Hadrianic temple of Venus and Roma by the Vel…

Carinae

(226 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Two Roman municipal districts, separated by the murus terreus Carinarum, a part of the pre-Servian wall which still existed in Varro's times (Varro Ling. 5,48), between Esquiline and Palatine. As part of the Augustan reorganization, both districts were jointly assigned to regio IV (Templum Pacis); the origin of the name is disputed (Serv. Aen. 8,351; Hor. Epist. 1,7,48). The district was the most desirable residential area for the Roman nobility; it was said that, even in Archaic times,  T…

Atrium Vestae

(368 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] The term relates to a precinct of the city of Rome between the Sacra Via and the Nova Via, south and east of the Temple of Vesta, and not solely to the residence of the Vestal virgins (Plin. Ep. 7,19,2; Gell. NA 1,12,9; Serv. Aen. 7,153f.). Early structural remains, probably of small huts from the 7th and 6th cents. BC, are possibly associated with a votive deposit to the Vestals from the 2nd half of the 6th cent. At the end of the 3rd cent. BC a wall was built to separate the Atr…

Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Basilica Porcia

(95 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Erected in 184 BC near the Curia Hostilia by Cato Censorius, financed from public funds (Plut. Cato mai. 19, 3; Plut. Cato min. 5, 1), Rome's oldest basilica. When Clodius was killed in 52 BC and his followers turned the Curia into his funeral pyre, the Basilica Porcia burned down as well. Two substructural rooms in opus incertum possibly stem from the Sullan building phase; they are located directly on the Clivus Lautumiarum (Clivus Argentarius) across from the carcer. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography E. M. Steinby, in: LTUR 1, 187 Richardson, 56.

Arco di Portogallo

(136 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Only known by its popular name, this arch was destroyed in 1662 by Pope Alexander VII in the course of extending the Via del Corso to the south of the Via delle Vite in Rome. Drawings by Dosio (before 1569) and Schenck (before 1705) show a single-arch building decorated on each side with column pairs of verde antico which carry an arabesque acanthus frieze on composite capitals. On its northern side, two extensively restored, possibly Hadrianic reliefs with the apotheosis of a woman (formerly ‘Apotheosis of Sabina’) as well as an adlocutio (both Rome, MC) were attached,…

Diaeta

(341 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] Room in a Roman  villa; however, it is not possible within the framework of Roman villa architecture to define a diaeta typologically or historically either on the basis of the villa letters of Pliny the Younger (Plin. Ep. 2,17; 5,6) or on other traditions. In both Laurentinum and Tusci, Pliny provides descriptions of seven diaeta each (Plin. Ep. 2,17,2; 2,17,13; 2,17,20; 5,6,20; 5,6,27). Their symmetry in numbers as well as in their aesthetic evaluation is a deliberate literary design, linking both letters compositionally, without i…

Arcus

(2,386 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Arcadii, Honorii et Theodosii This last dedication of a triumphal arch by the Roman city senate between AD 402 and 408 was meant for Arcadius (died in AD 408), Honorius and Theodosius II (born in AD 402) for their victories over the Germans. According to the inscription (CIL 6, 1196), the arch bore statues of the three emperors as well as reliefs of weapons (?). The decoration and tone of the inscription point to a triumphal arch of pagan tradition. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 23 C. Lega, in: LTUR 1, 79-80. [German version] [2] Augusti, 1 (29 BC)…

Domus Laterani

(188 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] In the written sources an aedes Lateranorum by Plautius Lateranus, the designated consul of the year 65, is attested in Rome during the Neronian period (Juv. 10,15,18; more regarding location near the Lateran basilica later: Jer. Ep. 77,4). An aedes Laterani (Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. 20,6) was created when Septimius Severus donated the aedes Parthorum to his senior commander T. Sextius Lateranus (PIR1 S 469). Three water pipelines (CIL XV 7536) bearing the names of Sextius Lateranus and his brother Sextius Torquatus (PIR1 S 478) were found in 1595 near the Lateran…

Argiletum

(65 words)

Author(s): Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
[German version] A main access located in the north-east of the  Forum Romanum, which provided the connection with the Subura. The aedes Iani Gemini is said to have been located ad infimum Argiletum (Liv. 1,19,2). The street fragments between the Forum Iulium, the Curia and the Basilica Aemilia belong to the Augustan layout. Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) Bibliography Richardson, 39 E. Tortorici, in: LTUR 1, 125 f.
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