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Octavius

(2,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Widely occurring Roman nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Octavus ('one born in the eighth month', which disappeared later, still surviving in Octavus Mamilius [2]). Of political importance in Rome from the 2nd cent. BC is only the older line which consecutively produced five consuls (O. [I 4-8]; preferred praenomen: Cn.; regarding the family relationships [1. 405-407]); the members of the related younger line (resident in Velitrae), on the other hand, from which the later princeps Augustus originated, did not rise above equestri…

Trebellius

(605 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., L. In 67 BC, he was people’s tribune and, like L. Roscius [I 5] Otho, interceded against the lex Gabinia in the interest of the Senate (and of M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus?). A. Gabinius [I 2] initiated T.’ removal from office in the concilium plebis; T. gave way, when Gabinius needed only one more tribus ’ vote for a majority. Possibly from Latium, father of T. [I 2] ([1.267]). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] T. (Fides), L. People’s tribune in 47 BC, who gave himself a purposely devised cognomen (Cic. Phil. 6,11 et passim - or Cicero’s m…

Luscius

(369 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Rare Italic surname, derived from luscus, ‘one-eyed, squinting’ (early examples: CIL I2 182-184; AE 1992, 586). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., L. Centorio under Sulla Centurion under Sulla, enriched himself during the Proscriptions in 82 BC and was condemned in 64 for triple murder (Ascon. 90 C). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L. Lanuvinus Writer of fabula palliata, rival of Terentius As a writer of palliata , a rival of Terentius (Donat. Andria 7), author of a Phasma (‘The Ghost’; according to Menander) and of a Thesaurus (‘The Treasure’; content in Don…

Manilius

(2,287 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman gens name, probably taken from the forename Manius, which in mss is frequently confused with Mallius, Manilius, Manlius. The family was significant in the 2nd cent. BC through M. [I 3] and [I 4]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. (or Manlius?), L. Writer, senator AD 97, [I 1] M. (or Manlius?), L. Senator in 97 BC, wrote about the Phoenix (as first in Lat.: Plin. HN 10,4f.), about natural wonders and sacred law. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) Bibliography Schanz/Hosius 1, 605f. [German version] [I 2] M., C. People's tribune in 66 AD People's tribune in …

Velleius

(1,014 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Krapinger, Gernot (Graz)
Roman gentile name (from vel(l)a [1. 377]). [German version] [1] V., C. From Lanuvium (like Q. Roscius [I 4]: Cic. Nat. D. 1,79), Roman senator, perhaps thanks to L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla; no longer mentioned after c. 70 BC. Possibly (cf. MRR 2,474) identical to C. V., friend of L. Licinius [I 10] Crassus beginning c. 90 BC (Cic. De or. 3,78), senator not later than 77, representative of the Epicureans in Cicero (Nat. D. 1,15; 1,18-56). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] V., C. From Campania? [2. 383]; grandfather of [4]; in 52 BC, iudex selectus, later praef. fabrum of Cn. P…

Sextius

(1,175 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dingel, Joachim (Hamburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman nomen gentile, also confused with Sestius . According to tradition, the family achieved prominence in the 4th cent. BC with S. [I 6] who obtained access to the consulate for plebeians. The family was unimportant under the Republic, with the exception of S. [1 3]; the branch which was best known into the 3rd cent. AD originated with Caesar's follower S. [I 2], but it made spurious claims to be descended from the first plebeian consul S. [I 6] (hence the epithets Africanus and Laterensis). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S., Q. Founder of t…

Quinctius

(3,960 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Name of a patrician Roman family, derived from the praenomen Quintus (comparable to Sextus/ Sextius, etc.), often also Quintius in inscriptions and MSS. The origin of the family is unknown; its great age is suggested by its connection with the festival of the Lupercalia (Ov. Fast. 2,378 has Quintilii) and the unusual praenomen of the family, Kaeso, encountered in this context ( v. Q. [I 1]). Livy counts them among the families that migrated to Rome from Alba with King Tullius Hostilius (1,32,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 mentions the Quinctilii). The Quinctii are mentioned many tim…

Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Pedius

(368 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a Roman gens, prominent from the 1st cent. BC; also attested in Delos. [German version] [1] P., Q. Consul suffectus 43 BC, son of Caesar's sister Julia C. 90-43 BC, son (not grandson as in Suet. Iul. 83,2) of Caesar's sister Iulia [1. 687] and a legate of Caesar in Gaul  58-55 (Caes. Gall. 2,2,1; 2,11,3). As praetor in 48, P. suppressed a revolt by T. Annius [I 14] Milo (Caes. Civ. 3,22). In 46/5, as a legate of Caesar, P. began the Spanish campaign with Q. Fabius [I 22] Maximus (Bell. Hisp. 2,2; Cass. Dio 43,31,1) and triumphed on 13 December 45 illegally ex Hispania (InscrIt 13,1,567; Ca…

Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Tullius

(3,490 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name derived from the praenomen Tullus; oldest traditional bearer of the name is the sixth king of Rome, Servius T. [I 4]; until the time of Cicero and his family, other bearers are only rarely recorded. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] T., Attius As 'by far the first man of the Volsci at the time' (Liv. 2,35,7), tradition connected him with the story of Coriolanus, in which T. supported the latter in his plans out of an old hate for the Romans (Liv. 2,37,1-8; 2,38,1-5; 2,39,1; 2,40,12). Hi…

Titurius

(136 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Italian nomen gentile, recorded primarily in inscriptions (cf. [1. 274 f.]; AE 1986,262; 1996,532). The only prominent member was Q. T. Sabinus, son of a mint-master c. 88 BC (MRR 2,454), who served Cn. Pompeius [I 3] in Spain (Sall. Hist. 2,94 M.) and was a legate of Caesar in Gaul. In 57 BC, T. fought the Belgae, in 56 the Veneti and with great success the Venelli under Viridovix (Caes. B Gall. 3,17,1-19,6), and in 55, with five legions in Caesar's absence, the Morini and the Menapii. The disaster in …

Lucanius

(311 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, from the frequent place name Luca. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., M. Companion of Pompey Strabo before Asculum in 89 BC Young companion of Pompeius Strabo before Asculum in 89 BC (ILLRP 515, I. 10; Social Wars [3]), perhaps son of the legate Lucanus, named in Livy for the same year (Liv. Per. 75). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., Q. Centurion of Caesar, fell in 54 BC as primus pilus Aduatuca Centurion of Caesar, fell in 54 BC as primus pilus in Aduatuca (Caes. B. Gall. 5,35,7). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) II. Imperial period [German version] [II 1] L. …

Marcius

(5,160 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Old Roman nomen gentile, derived from the prename Marcus. Tradition knows of a patrician branch with the (mythical) king Ancus M. [I 3] and Cn. M. Coriolanus as its most important members. The younger members of the family (from the 3rd cent.) were plebeian without a link to the patrician Marcii being evident. Important families included the Rutili, later also the Censorini, Tremuli, Reges and Rallae. In the Late Republic the family claimed descent from the kings Ancus M. and Numa Pompilius (therefore the cognomen Rex, see M. [I 5]; RRC 346; 425; Suet. Iul. 6,1; [4. 154]) as wel…

Peducaeus

(502 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family which does not appear until the 1st century BC; in fact a nickname ('flat-footed'). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] People's tribune in 114 BC Elected people's tribune for the year 113 BC. Straight after assuming office in December 114, he carried through a law which led to new proceedings for 'fornication' against the Vestals Licinia [4] and Marcia [3] under the chairmanship of C. Cassius [I 17] Longinus Ravilla (Cic. Nat. D. 3,74; Ascon. 45f. C.). MRR 1, 536. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] P., Sex. Praetor in 77 BC, pr…

Rutilius

(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R. Lupus, P. Consul in 90 BC Praetor no later than 93 BC; consul in 90. During the Social War [3], he received the command of the northern army; against the advice of his legate C. Marius [I 1], he was lured into an ambush by the Marsi and was killed in the valley of the Tolnus (modern Turano; Liv. Per. 73; App. B Civ. 1,191-194; Oros. 5,18,11 f.). MRR 2,25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig…

Tremelius

(425 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile (in the MSS very frequently Tremellius), attested from the 2nd. cent. BC onwards. The six generations of praetorian ancestors on whom T. [3] prided himself (Varro, Rust. 2,4,2) are quite believable. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Cn. As tribune of the people, he successfully interceded in 168 BC against an extension of the term served by the censors (Liv. 45,15,9) who had passed him over in the lectio senatus . As praetor in 159 BC, he insulted the pontifex maximus who gave him a penalty ( multa ). A people's court confir…

Mamurra

(173 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Unusual Italic personal name, known through M., a Roman equestrian from Formiae (Catull. 43,5 etc.; Hor. Sat. 1,5,37), who was an associate of Pompey in c. 66 BC, was in Spain with Caesar in 61, and served as the latter's praefectus fabrum in Gaul from 58 (Catull. 29,18-24). Around 55/4, M. was periodically at Rome, where his luxurious house caused a furore (Plin. HN 36,48). His rival in eroticis, Catullus [1], depicts him as a scandalous war profiteer and a philanderer (Catull. 41) (allegedly in cahoots with Caesar, Catull. 57). Caesar's associat…

Tarquinius

(1,599 words)

Author(s): Schirmer, Brigitte | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Nomen gentile The name T. is the Latinized form of an Ancient Etruscan nomen gentile * tarq/χ u-na, from which the Latin name was derived by means of the -i̯o suffix inherited from the indo-European basic form. In Etruscan itself, the name in the form tarq/χ una is not attested; instances of a basic form * tarq/χ-  from the Archaic period are rare (cf. perhaps tarχ umenaia [1. 251, Cl 2.8], tarχ elnas [1. 86, Vs 1.2]). Inherited forms occur in Late Etruscan in the nomina gentilia tarcna/tarχ na ( cf. tarcnai, tar χ nas from the Tomba delle Iscrizioni, Caere, CIE 5907-5974; t…

Petillius

(858 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family (also Petilius), known at Rome from the 2nd cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Two people's tribunes of 187 BC was the name of two related (cousins?) people's tribunes of the year 187 BC. They accused (at the instigation of Cato [1]?) L. Cornelius [I 72] Scipio before the Senate of the misappropriation of state funds ( peculatus) during the war against Antiochus [5] III and demanded an explanation. L.'s brother P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio declared the accusations to be absurd, an…
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