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Siculi

(290 words)

Author(s): Falco
[German version] (Σικελοί/ Sikeloí). People in Sicilia. Ancient writings date the arrival of the S. from Italy variously (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 79b 3: three generations, Philistos FGrH 556 F 46,4: 80 years before the Trojan War, Thuc. 6,2,5: 300 years before the Greeks' western colonisation). Modern archaeological studies date it to the end of the 2nd millennium BC (end of the Bronze Age; finds from Cassibile: 1050-850 BC). It was preceded by settlement of small Ausonian groups to the north east from…

Sicani

(604 words)

Author(s): Falco
[German version] (Σικανοί/ Sikanoí). People in Sicily whose origin was already being discussed by ancient authors: Timaeus (FGrH 566 F 38; according to Thuc. 6,2,2 also others) considers them autochthonous, according to others (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 79; Thuc. 6,2,2; Philistus FGrH 556 F 45; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 136; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,22,2) they originated near the Sicanus River in Iberia, from where they had been driven away by the Ligures. It was from them that the island of Sicily, previously call…

Trogilus

(92 words)

Author(s): Falco
[German version] (Τρώγιλος;  Trṓgilos). Coastal strip near Syracusae (Thuc. 6,99,1; 7,2,4; Liv. 25,23,10: portus Trogilorum; Sil. Pun. 14,259), identical with either (1) the 1 km long Cape Mazzarona with its many caves on the eastern edge of Epipolae (between the coast of Cappuccini and the Scoglio Due Fratelli [1. 827]) or (2) the coast on the northeastern edge of Epipolae (near Cape Santa Panagia [2. 28 f.; 3. 61 f.]). Falco Bibliography 1 H. P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakusai, RE Suppl. 13, 815-836 2 L. Polacco, R. Mirisola, Tucidide: la spedizione ateniese contro Sir…

Iaitia

(26 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia
[English version] (Ἰαιτία). Stadt auf Sizilien (Diod. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; vgl. HN 148), wohl identisch mit Ietai (s. Nachträge). Falco, Giulia

Stiela

(147 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Στίελ(λ)α; Stíel(l)a). Fortified city in Sicilia of unknown location (Sophron fr. [1.67]; Philistus FGrH 556 F 20), in the vicinity of Megara according to Steph. Byz. s.v. Στύελλα (corrected to Στιελα based on coins) [3]. In view of the legends STA/STI/ STIA, S. is to be attributed with two series of coins (5th/4th cent. BC) ([2]; a single coin was found in excavations: Francavilla di Sicilia west of Taormina [3]). The relationship with coins from Catane and Leontini suggests that S. was located there ([4; 5]: near Portiere Stella in the plain of Catania). Falco, Giulia (…

Cossura

(91 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κόσσουρα, Κόσ(σ)ουρος; Kóssoura, Kós(s)ouros, Lat. Cossura, Cossyra). Vulcanic island between Sicily and Africa, modern Pantelleria, before the Punic Wars under Carthaginian rule, in the First Punic War temporarily, after 217 BC finally conquered by Rome and attached to the province of Sicilia. The partially Phoenician inscriptions of coins demonstrate that the population was Punic for a considerable time later. Remains from the Prehistoric to Byzantine periods. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Tusa, La Sicilia nella preistoria, 1983, 274ff. Id., At…

Elymi

(292 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔλυμοι; Élymoi). Pre-Greek tribe in western Sicily, thought by Thucydides (6,2,3; cf. Str. 13,1,53) to be descendants of Trojan refugees ( Elymus); according to Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 79b), they were forced out of southern Italy by the Oinotroi. They were generally allied with the Phoenicians and hostile towards the Greeks. Following their Hellenization in the 5th cent. BC, they are no longer mentioned as a tribe. The names of their towns ( Eryx, Segesta,  Entella) point to Ligurian…

Gaulus

(225 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Γαῦλος, Γαῦδος; Gaûlos, Gaûdos). North-western island of the Malta group (modern Gozo), first mentioned by Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 341; cf. Str. 6,2,11; Diod. Sic. 5,12,4: located in the open sea with good harbours; Procop. Vand. 1,14; Plin. HN 3,92). Name probably Phoenician: γαῦλος/ gaûlos, ‘round cargo boat’. In the 8th cent. it was colonized by Phoenicians, later in Carthaginian, Greek, and after 220 BC Roman possession. Inland there was a settlement of the same name. Coins with Greek and Punic legends (HN 883). In Ggantij…

Ecnomum

(149 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (ἔκνομον; éknomon). Massif in southern Sicily near the mouth of the Salso above Licata. The discovery of remnants from archaic times (chthonic sanctuary, necropolis) in Mollarella and newer studies about the mountain [1], which was bordered by a subsidiary of the ancient Himeras and was located towards the sea, suggest [2] the location of E. west of Monte S. Angelo (Poliscia plateau) and not on its eastern foothills as was previously thought. References: Diod. Sic. 19,108 (fortress…

Himera

(487 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Colonization (Ἱμέρα; Himéra). The settlers understood the non-Greek place name as ἡμέρα ( hēméra, ‘day’) and made the cock their coat-of-arms (coins), also alluded to by Pind. Ol. 12,13. Apart from  Mylae, H. was the only ancient Greek colony on the north coast of Sicily, pushed way up towards Phoenician territory, founded, starting from Zancle  - 240 years before its destruction in 409, in other words in 649 BC (Diod. Sic. 1…

Miscera

(22 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μίσκερα/ Mískera). Town in Sicania (Sicani; Theop. FGrH 115 F 198). Location unknown. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 10, 159f.

Motyum

(62 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυον; Mótyon). Fort in the region of  Acragas, occupied by Ducetius in 451 BC, reconquered by Acragas the following year (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Possible location at modern Vassallaggi. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: P. Melli, G. Cavaleri (eds.), Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Thapsus

(352 words)

Author(s): Falco | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
(Θάψος/ Thápsos). [German version] [1] Tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily Flat, sandy (Serv. Aen. 3,688) tongue of land on the east coast of Sicily, northwest of Syracusae, connected with the mainland via an isthmus of c. 100 m (Thuc. 6,97,1), modern Penisola di Magnisi. Around 730 BC Lamis from Megara [2] settled on T. after he had abandoned Trotilum and been driven out of Leontini; after his death, his companions left T. in order to make a new home in Megara [3] Hyblaia 7 km to the north (Thuc. 6,4,1). There was an empórion ('trade port') on T. from the 15t…

Engyon

(119 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔγγυον; Énguon). City in the interior of Sicily, supposedly founded by Cretans (Diod. Sic. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), taken by Timoleon from the tyrant Leptines (Diod. Sic. 16,72); in the 2nd Punic War on the side of Carthage and yet treated gently by Marcellus (Plut., ibid.); according to Cic. Verr. 3,103 a civitas decumana, according to Plin. HN 3,91 stipendiarii; the sanctuary of the ‘mothers’ (Plut. ibid.) was famous, in Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 of the Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, with relics of Meriones and Odysseus. Undoubtedly identical with Troina [1. 13013; 2]. F…

Sileraioi

(83 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Σιλεραῖοι/ Sileraîoi). Ethnic name probably of Italic mercenaries from the region of the Sila Mountains (Sila [1], Bruttium), who up to the death of Dionysius [1] I in 367 BC minted Syracusan bronze coins in the 'drachma' series with the legend SILERAION and an attacking warrior. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Garraffino, La monetazione dell'età dionigiana. Contromarche e riconiazioni, in: Atti dell'VIII Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici Napoli 1983, 1993, 191-244, especially 224  G. Tagliamone, I figli di Marte, 1994, passim.

Piacus

(66 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πίακος/ Píakos). City in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), presumably to the northwest of Catania at Adrano in the Mendolito quarter. Finds of coins suggest this location: bronze (425-420 BC) and silver ( c. 400 BC) issues as well as an exemplar showing the double Piacinus/ Adran legend. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTGCI 13, 501-507  E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 219.

Echetla

(112 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐχέτλα; Echétla). Town in the interior of Sicily, neighbouring Leontini, Syracusae and Camarina (Diod. Sic. 20,32), in the border region between the spheres of influence of Carthage and Hieron II (Pol. 1,15,10). Besieged by the Romans at the beginning of the 1st Punic War. Plin. HN 3,91 calls the citizens of E. stipendiarii. Judging from the similarity in name, E. was located on the hill Occhialà near Grammichele east of Caltagirone where Siculan-Greek remains and a Demeter sanctuary were found. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, …

Mons Neptunius

(49 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Mountain range in north-eastern Sicily (Solin. 5,12), modern Monti Peloritani, named after the Temple of Poseidon which the mythical hunter Orion [1] is said to have erected on Mt. Pelorias (Hes. in Diod. 4,85,5). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2514.

Phalarium

(56 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φαλάριον; Phalárion). Fortress (φρούριον; phroúrion) near Gela in Sicily, probably the fortification complex discovered on Monte Desusino (429 m high), founded in the 6th cent. BC by Phalaris. Here Agathocles [2] was encamped in 311 BC in the battle against the Carthagians (Diod. Sic. 19,108,2). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 7, 407f.; 10, 331-334.

Pantacyas

(71 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Παντακύας/ Pantakýas, Παντακίας/ Pantakías). River on the eastern coast of Sicily flowing into the Bay of Catane in the south near Brucoli, the modern Porcaria. In 729 BC. Lamis of Megara founded the settlement of Trotilum on the P. although it was abandoned shortly after. Other refererences: Thuc. 6,4,1; cf. Plin. HN 3,89: Pantagies; Ptol. 3,4,9: Παντάχου ποταμοῦ ἐσβολαί. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. P., RE 18, 686.
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