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Mylae

(512 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Town in southern Perrhaebia (Μύλαι; Mýlai). Town in southern Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) between Chyretiae und Phalanna, mentioned in literature only about the year 171 BC, when it was captured and plundered by Perseus after a long resistance (Liv. 42,54,1ff.). Starting from the evidence in Livy, M. has been located in a citadel's ruins - the walls had been restored during the Byzantine period - on a steep hill above the Xerias (= Titaresius) near present Damasion, where also inscriptions attributed to M. have been discovered (IG IX 2, 332-337; [1]). Kramolisch, Herwig …

Piacus

(66 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πίακος/ Píakos). City in Sicily (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.), presumably to the northwest of Catania at Adrano in the Mendolito quarter. Finds of coins suggest this location: bronze (425-420 BC) and silver ( c. 400 BC) issues as well as an exemplar showing the double Piacinus/ Adran legend. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTGCI 13, 501-507  E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 219.

Echetla

(112 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἐχέτλα; Echétla). Town in the interior of Sicily, neighbouring Leontini, Syracusae and Camarina (Diod. Sic. 20,32), in the border region between the spheres of influence of Carthage and Hieron II (Pol. 1,15,10). Besieged by the Romans at the beginning of the 1st Punic War. Plin. HN 3,91 calls the citizens of E. stipendiarii. Judging from the similarity in name, E. was located on the hill Occhialà near Grammichele east of Caltagirone where Siculan-Greek remains and a Demeter sanctuary were found. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography D. Palermo, s.v. Grammichele, …

Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Λιλύβαιον/ Lilýbaion, Λιλύβη/ Lilýbē; Latin Lilybaeum, -on). Foothills (modern Capo Boeo) and town (modern Marsala) in the most western part of Sicily, c. 140 km from Carthage; founded by the Carthaginians and heavily fortified after the Punic base Motya had been destroyed in 397 BC by Dionysius I. The fortress defied repeated attacks by the Greeks (in 368 under Dionysius, …

Euboea

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Εὔβοια; Eúboia). [1] Greek island [German version] I. Location The largest Greek island other than Crete extends parallel to the eastern coast of central Greece (Locris, Boeotia and Attica). E. is about 160 km long, about 5.5 to 50 km wide and has an area of 3,580 km2. It is separated by a strait from the mainland which narrows at its centre to a 40-m wide channel, the  Euripus [1]. Since the 5th cent. BC several bridges linked E. at this point to the mainland. Because of its steep cliffs the east coast is almost inaccessible with Cyme a…

Motya

(277 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Μοτύα, Μοτύη; Motýa, Motýē). Phoenician-Carthaginian settlement on an island ( c. 45 ha) in the lagoon 8 km to the north of Marsala, modern Mozia on San Pantaleo. With Solus and Panormus, M. was the last fortress held by the Phoenicians in their retreat from the Greeks in western Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,6; own coins inscribed in Greek and Phoenician in the 5th and 4th cents. BC: HN 157f.) and was conquered and destroyed by Dionys…

Pachynus

(236 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πάχυνος/ Páchynos). Promontory in the extreme south-east of Sicily (more precisely: 8 km northeast from there), today's Capo Pássero, 5 km southeast of today's Pachino. P. was of great importance for navigation as a landmark and measuring point (cf. Str. 2,4,3: distance from Crete; 6,2,11: from Malta; Plin. HN 3,87: from the Peloponnese). Because of the way the island was thought to be orientated, in antiquity P. was usually referred to as the east cape (Str. 6,2,1; Plin. HN 3,87;…

Iaitia

(28 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἰαιτία; Iaitía). Town in Sicily (Diod. Sic. 22,10,4; 23,18; Steph. Byz. s. v. I.; cf. HN 148), probably identical to  Ietae. Falco, Giulia (Athens)

Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Endesa

(100 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] Siculan town [1] in the territory of Himera, mentioned in a dedication to Hera Thespis (rather than to Leukaspis [2]) inscribed on both sides of a relief. It was found in the Heraion of Samos and shows on one side a round shield and on the other the bow of the ship Samaina. The dedication was probably presented by citizens of Samos when they besieged Endesa (500 BC). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography 1 M. Massa, s.v. E., BTCGI 7, 1989, 181 2 G. Manganaro, Una dedica di Samo rivolta non a Leukaspis, ma a Hera Thespis?, in: ZPE 101, 1994, 120-126.

Eryx

(583 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(ὁ Ἔρυξ/ ho Éryx, Lat. Eryx, Erucus, Erycus). [German version] [1] Mountain in western Sicily High, isolated mountain in western Sicily (751 m), now Monte San Giuliano. Settled even in prehistoric times, with a famous sanctuary to the probably Phoenician goddess of E., identified as Aphrodite by the Greeks, later (Thuc. 6,2,3) became a polis of the  Elymaeans. The attempt by Dorieus to establish a Greek colony (around 510 BC) ended in his destruction by the Phoenicians and the Elymaeans of Segesta (Hdt. 5,43-4…

Motyum

(62 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μότυον; Mótyon). Fort in the region of  Acragas, occupied by Ducetius in 451 BC, reconquered by Acragas the following year (Diod. 11,91,1; 4). Possible location at modern Vassallaggi. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Tigano, Vassallaggi: nuove ricerche e nuovi dati, in: P. Melli, G. Cavaleri (eds.), Atti Convegno su Antichità e Storia della bassa Valle dell'Himera, (1987), 1993, 191-204.

Engyon

(119 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Ἔγγυον; Énguon). City in the interior of Sicily, supposedly founded by Cretans (Diod. Sic. 4,79; Plut. Marcellus 20), taken by Timoleon from the tyrant Leptines (Diod. Sic. 16,72); in the 2nd Punic War on the side of Carthage and yet treated gently by Marcellus (Plut., ibid.); according to Cic. Verr. 3,103 a civitas decumana, according to Plin. HN 3,91 stipendiarii; the sanctuary of the ‘mothers’ (Plut. ibid.) was famous, in Cic. Verr. 2,4,97 of the Mater Magna, 2,5,186 Mater Idaea, with relics of Meriones and Odysseus. Undoubtedly identical with Troina [1. 13013; 2]. F…

Sicily

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
(Σικελία/ Sikelía, Sicily). The largest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; cf. Str. 2,5,19; differently Hdt. 1,170 and Timaeus FGrH 566 F 65): 25,460 km2, including the offshore islands such as the Insulae Aegates, Ustica, the Aeoli Insulae, Cossura, Lopadusa (present-day Lampedusa), Aethusa (present-day Linosa) and Melite [7] 25,953 km2. [German version] I. Name The island was originally called Trinacria (Τρινακρία/ Trinakría, Hellanicus FGrH 51 F 79b), later Sicania (Σικανίη/ Sikaníē, Hdt. 7,170; Σικανία/ Sikanía, Thuc. 6,2,2) and only then Sicelia (Σικελία)…

Sileraioi

(83 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Σιλεραῖοι/ Sileraîoi). Ethnic name probably of Italic mercenaries from the region of the Sila Mountains (Sila [1], Bruttium), who up to the death of Dionysius [1] I in 367 BC minted Syracusan bronze coins in the 'drachma' series with the legend SILERAION and an attacking warrior. Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography S. Garraffino, La monetazione dell'età dionigiana. Contromarche e riconiazioni, in: Atti dell'VIII Convegno del Centro Internazionale di Studi Numismatici Napoli 1983, 1993, 191-244, especially 224  G. Tagliamone, I figli di Marte, 1994, passim.

Entella

(209 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἔντελλα; Éntella), modern Rocca d'Entella west of Corleone. City of the  Elymi in the west of Sicily (Thuc. 6,2,3), often named in the wars of Dionysius I and of Timoleon with the Carthaginians (Diod. Sic. 14,9; 48; 61; 15,73; 16,67; 73), numbered by Cic. Verr. 2,3,103 among the civitates decumanae, by Plin. HN 3,91 to the stipendiarii, not destroyed until the 13th cent. by Frederick II. The investigation of the settlement and of the area belonging to it (begun in 1983) has brought finds to …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Merusium

(39 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μερούσιον; Meroúsion). Settlement of unknown location, 70 stadia (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 189) from Syracuse, probably in the vicinity of a sanctuary of Artemis Meroessa (Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography BTCGI 9, 567.

Latomiai

(366 words)

Author(s): Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λατομίαι/ Latomíai, Λιθοτομίαι; Lithotomíai, Latin Lautumiae). The quarries on the southern slope of the limestone terrace of Epipolae north of Syracusae that were obviously already in operation from the early period of Syracusae and that were later used as a prison. Xenophanes (123 A 33 DK) mentions the fish fossils found in them. The three largest latomiae (from which a total of 2.4 million m3 of rocks were quarried), with walls 25-35 m high, a length of up to 250 m and a width of 40-170 m (in Ael. VH 12,44: 1 stadium long, 2 plethra wide),…
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