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Baghdad Arabic

(5,340 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction 1.1 Baghdad, the capital and the seat of government and financial operations, is situated on the river Tigris in the center of Iraq. In 2003 it was estimated that its population exceeded five million inhabitants, 60 percent of whom are Shiʿi. The rest are mainly Sunni, with a Christian minority comprising Chaldean Catholics, Assyrians (Orthodox and Catholics), and a small number of Greek Catholics and P…
Date: 2018-04-01

Bedouinization

(3,919 words)

Author(s): Farida Abu-Haidar
1. Introduction Sociolinguists dealing with Bedouin-sedentary Arabic contact identify several stages of transition from Bedouin to urban Arabic. Cadora (1992:1), for example, cites the following five stages: Bedouin ⇒ Bedouin-Rural ⇒ Rural ⇒ Rural-Urban ⇒ Urban This is a gradual process that takes place when nomadic tribes settle in sedentary rural or urban areas and level their speech patterns in the direction of the host communities' dialects. Linguistic leveling may be complete or partial, depending on how far the settlers accommodate to their sedentary envir…
Date: 2018-04-01