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Graduation tower

(726 words)

Author(s): Fessner, Michael
Graduation towers were used starting in the mid-16th century to raise the concentration of saline solution used in the extraction of salt (sole) before reaching boiling point in order to save energy and expense.The optimal saturation of sodium chloride in water is 26.4% at 20°C; at basic atmospheric pressure, the boiling point is 109°C. In most European salt works, however, the salt concentration at source was below 5%, and a few were only at 1-2%, for example at Unna/Westphalia. So, salt works with 1% brines required thirt…
Date: 2019-10-14

Black coal

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Fessner, Michael
1. Introduction Coal is sedimentary rock of vegetable origin, which vary greatly in geological age. It ranges from soft to rock-hard, its surface from matt to shiny, its coloration from brown to black. Despite the common view that coal only became important in the process of industrialization from the late 18th century, it was already significant in the Middle Ages and early modern period in places where it could be transported by water, particularly in Britain, where as early as the late 14th cen…
Date: 2019-10-14