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(2,913 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, orthographical sign alif , which is the ¶ first letter of the Arabic alphabet, with numerical value one ; transcribedʾ internally and at the end of words, ignored initially (except in special cases) in the system of the EI. Definition: unvoiced glottal occlusive. For the Arab grammarians, hamza is a ḥarf ṣaḥīḥ defined as: s̲h̲adīda mad̲j̲hūra , having as mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : aḳṣāl-ḥalḳ “The farthest part of the throat” (like h) (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī. Mufaṣṣal 2, § 732). For the phonological oppositions of the phoneme hamza, see J. Cantineau, Esquisse , 178; for the incompatibilities, ibid., …

Ḥurūf al-Hid̲j̲āʾ

(3,861 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, “letters of the alphabet”. Al-hid̲j̲āʾ is defined in LA, xx, 228, l. 17, xv, 353b, l. 4-5, as taḳṭīʿ al-lafẓa bi-ḥurūfihā . This follows Ibn Sīda, who in his Muk̲h̲aṣṣaṣ (xiii, 3 end) attributes this definition to the Ṣāḥib al-ʿAyn (al-K̲h̲alīl): “cutting up the word into its ḥurūf”, that is, “spelling”. Contemporary or recent dictionaries of the Arab world ( Muḥīṭ al-Muḥīṭ , al-Bustān , Aḳrab al-mawārid , al-Mund̲j̲id ) define it more precisely as taḅṭīʿ al-lafẓa wa-taʿdīd ḥurūfihā maʿa ḥarakātihā : “cutting up the word and enumerating its ḥurūf with their ḥarakāt”


(529 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, the seventh letter of the Arabic alphabet, here transcribed as k̲h̲. Its numerical value is 600, according to the eastern order [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: voiceless post-velar fricative. According to the Arabic grammatical tradition: rīk̲h̲wa , mahmūsa , mustaʿliya . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : min adnā ’l-ḥalḳ (from that part of the throat nearest to the mouth) (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal2 , ed. Broch, § 732); Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲ ( S̲h̲arḥ , ed. G. Jahn, 1460, 1. 6) defines it thus: “the k̲h̲āʾ is nearer to the mouth than the g̲h̲ayn ”. The Arabs accordingly placed the k̲h̲aʾ


(1,064 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, “inflection” (verbal noun of fourth form, amāla ), a phonetic phenomenon. It consists in “ alifs tending towards yāʾ and fatḥas tending towards kasra ” (Ibn al-Sarrād̲j̲, Mūzad̲j̲ , 139). Modern phonetics regards it as a palatalization, produced by a rising movement of the tongue towards the prepalatal region. Depending on the extent of this movement, the vowel a shifts from its zone of articulation to that of ę or to that of e (or even to that of i). Arab grammarians distinguish an imāla s̲h̲adīda , “strong” (probably a > e) and an imāla mutawassiṭa , “medium” (probably a > ä

Ibn al-Ḥād̲j̲ib

(1,043 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn abū ʿAmr ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿUmar b. Abī bakr al-Mālikī , Māliki faḳīh and grammarian who owes his popular name to the fact that his father, a Kurd, was chamberlain ( ḥād̲j̲ib ) to the amīr ʿIzz al-Dīn Mūsak al-Ṣalāḥī. He was born at Asnā, a village in Upper Egypt, after, 570/1174-5. He studied the Islamic sciences in Cairo with great success, particularly with al-S̲h̲āṭibī and Muḥammad al-G̲h̲aznawī. After that, at least for some years, he must have lived and taught in Cairo, as is shown by the Amālī dated from that town, the earliest in 609/1212-3,…


(1,700 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, a technical term in Arabic grammar. It is sometimes found translated as “inflexion”, as by G. Flügel ( Die gram. Schulen , 15), who also unjustifiably extended the sphere of this “inflexion”. ¶ Nevertheless in translating thus, one comes up against the way in which the Arab grammarians envisaged this “inflexion”. It should be pointed out, first of all, that these grammarians had no proper term for “declension” and “conjugation”, and no general term for “case” and “mood”. They proceed in a purely formal manner. Taking sounds into consideration, they make the following division: (a) rafʿ =


(1,614 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, letter of the alphabet, word; Ibn Ḏj̲innī ( Sirr al-ṣināʿa , i, 15-19), examining the etymology of the word, finds an original meaning of ḥadd , “limit”: innamā ḥarf al-s̲h̲ayʾ ḥadduh wa-nāḥiyatuh ; and, in speaking of the ḥurūf al-hid̲j̲āʾ : ḥadd munḳaṭaʿ al-ṣawt wa-g̲h̲āyatuh wa-ṭarafuh (16, lines 6-7), “The limit where the cutting of the ṣawt occurs, its end, its extremity.” This explanation introduces an element from a system which was elaborated much later: the maḳṭaʿ , but it is important because of the use of the word ḥadd, “limit.” The LA contains a long article on ḥarf


(785 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
is the infinitive of the verb aḍmara/ yuḍmiru , “to conceal”. The Arab grammarians use it when speaking about an unexpressed grammatical element, supposedly existent and active; it can thus be translated as “imply”. The opposite is iẓhār , from the verb aẓhara “to reveal”. A good example of the two is supplied by Ch. 50 of Sībawayhi. One can say (i, 107): al-ṣabiyya al-ṣabiyya , “the small boy, the small boy!” with iḍmār of a verb in the d̲j̲azm requiring the naṣb of the substantive, or, with iẓhār of This verb: lā tuwaṭṭiʾ al-ṣabiyya , “do not tread on the small boy”. This verb aḍmara is used thus…

Ibn Mālik

(1,702 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Mālik al-Ṭāʾī al-D̲j̲ayyānī (the name given by al-Maḳḳarī, ii, 421; for his reasons see 427, lines 13-6), Arab grammarian. He was born in Jaen in 600 or 601/1203-4 or 1204-5, according to the most generally accepted date, and was at first a Mālikī. Al-Maḳḳarī (ii, 421) gives the names of four of his teachers in his native town; to them may be added that of Abū ʿAlī ʿUmar al-S̲h̲alawbīnī, in Seville. Very soon he left for the Near…


(678 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, in Arabic grammar, refers to the constituent parts of the nominal phrase, e.g. Zayd un karīm un “Zayd is noble”; here, Zayd, the first term, is mubtadaʾ , and karīm, the second one, is k̲h̲abar. For the verbal phrase, the corresponding terms are fāʿil agent and fiʿl verb. The Arab grammarians, as can readily be seen, recognised two types of phrase, the nominal and the verbal, in their language. They also recognised clearly the necessity of the ʿaḳd , the nexus linking the two terms of these phrases, and they called it isnād “the act of leaning one thing against another”, the linkage between al-mu…


(502 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, 6th letter of the Arabic alphabet, is transcribed ; numerical value: 8, as in the Syriac (and Canaanite) alphabet [see abd̲j̲ad ]. Definition: unvoiced pharyngeal spirant; according to Arabic grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mahmūsa , as regards the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲: awsaṭ al-ḥalḳ , “the middle part of the throat” (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal2 , § 732). is a very much stronger and harsher spirant than h. It is produced by the friction of the expressed air against the strongly contracted walls of the pharynx (a breath sound without velar vibration), from wh…

Ibn al-Sarrād̲j̲

(584 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. al-Sarī al-Sarrād̲j̲ (“the saddle-maker”) al-Naḥwī al-Bag̲h̲dādī , Arab grammarian. The date of his birth is unknown, but he lived in Bag̲h̲dād. He was the youngest pupil of Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Mubarrad, who for that reason devoted particular attention to him. For a time he allowed himself to be led away from grammatical studies in favour of logic and music, but then returned to them resolutely. He taught in Bag̲h̲dād, and some famous grammarians were included amon…


(2,805 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, “action”, is regarded as a noun derived from the verb faʿala yafʿal inf. faʿl , “to do” (Lane, vi, 2420a, b). This noun is the technical term in Arabic grammar for denoting the verb. Where traditional English grammar distinguishes between eight “parts of speech”, the grammar of the Arabs established only three principal divisions: ism , fiʿl , ḥarf . This tripartite division into noun , verb and particle came to the Arabs from Aristotelian logic and not from the grammar of the Greeks; this fact seems ¶ sufficiently established (see Arabica , iv, 14-5 and Traité , 23-4…

D̲h̲ū, D̲h̲ī, D̲h̲ā

(462 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, demonstrative forms based on the demonstrative element d̲h̲ . The variety of their uses precludes these forms from being regarded as a single declined word; thus: D̲h̲ū was the relative pronoun, invariable, of the Ṭayyiʾ; corresponding to the Hebrew , the poetic form of the relative pronoun. Ḏh̲ī forms part of the masc. relative pronoun allad̲h̲ī ; but allatī in the feminine. The opposition d̲h̲/ t marks the gender. Corresponding to d̲h̲ī are the Aramaic biblical relative, invariable, ( de in syr.), the Geez masc. demonstrative ze, acc. za. D̲h̲ā masc. sin…


(659 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, 22nd letter of the Arabic alphabet, transcribed k, numerical value 20, according to the eastern order [see abd̲j̲ad ]. ¶ Definition: occlusive , postpalatal , surd; postpalatal, the medial position of k in the variations that it can be subjected to, according to the vowel with which it is in contact (see H. Fleisch, Traité , §2 b). According to the Arab grammatical tradition: s̲h̲adīda , mahmūsa , in mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ : the region a little less further back than that of ḳāf , the furthest back in the mouth (Sībawayhi, ii, 453, 1. 6-7, ed. Paris; al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal


(1,091 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
( iddig̲h̲ām ), infinitive of the verb adg̲h̲ama “to make (a thing) enter (another)”; in Arabic grammar: al-idg̲h̲ām idk̲h̲āl ḥarf fī ḥarf , “al-idg̲h̲am is making a ḥarf enter a ḥarf” ( LA, xv, 93, lines 18-9/xii, 203b, lines 2-3); one says: adg̲h̲amt u ’l-ḥarf a and iddag̲h̲amtuh , according to the pattern iftaʿaltuh ( ibid.), whence the use of idg̲h̲ām and iddig̲h̲ām in the same sense; the first is a term of the Kūfans, the second of the Baṣrans (Ibn Yaʿīs̲h̲, 1456, lines 17-8), although the latter also frequently use the verb adg̲h̲ama, e.g.: Sībawayhi, ii, 459, lines 4, 11, etc., b…

Ibn His̲h̲ām

(1,251 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Abū Muḥ. ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Naḥwī , faḳīh and grammarian, was born in Cairo in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 708/April 1310. There he studied the Islamic sciences, particularly under ʿAbd al-Laṭīf b. al-Muraḥḥal, Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Fākihānī and Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Tibrīzī. From the Spanish grammarian Abū Ḥayyān al-G̲h̲arnāṭī he heard only the exposition of the Dīwān of Zuhayr Ibn Abī Sulmā. Thereafter he was hostile to him. Ibn His̲h̲ām lived in Cairo; we know of only two journeys, made to Mecca in 749/1348 and 756/1355. A S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh, he b…


(700 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, 15th letter of the Arabic alphabet, conventional transcription ; numerical value, according to the oriental order, 800 [see abd̲j̲ad ]. The definition of the phoneme presents difficulty. The most probable is: voiced lateralized velarized interdental fricative (see J. Cantineau, Consonantisme , in Semitica , iv, 84-5). According to the Arab grammatical tradition: rik̲h̲wa mad̲j̲hūra muṭbaḳa . For the mak̲h̲rad̲j̲ , the s̲h̲ad̲j̲riyya of al-K̲h̲alīl (al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, Mufaṣṣal , 2nd ed. J. P. Broch, 190, line 20) is difficult to define exactly (see De Sacy, Gr. Ar.2, i, 26, n…

D̲j̲amʿ, D̲j̲amāʿa

(4,735 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
—The aim of the present article is to clarify general ideas, and to show what system underlies the expression of grammatical number, as regards the Arabic plural and collective. The Arabic language distinguishes. between: 1) the singular, 2) dual, 3) plural, 4) collective. Arab grammarians have paid close attention to the first three: 1) the singular: al-wāḥid ; mufrad is applied to the “simple” noun (as opposed to murakkab , applied to the “compound” noun) by the Muf . § 4; but it has also been used for “singular”, likewise fard [ q.v.].—2) the dual: al-mut̲h̲annā , …

Ibn Barrī

(719 words)

Author(s): Fleisch, H.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. Barrī b. ʿAbd al-D̲j̲abbār al-Maḳdisī (so called after his family’s place of origin) al-Miṣrī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī Arab grammarian born at Cairo on 5 Rad̲j̲ab 499/13 March 1106 and died there 27 S̲h̲awwāl 582/11 January 1187. He studied under the masters of that period (see Ibn K̲h̲allikān. ii, 293); when he himself was a master, among his disciples was Abū Mūsā al-Ḏj̲azūlī al-Naḥwī [ q.v.]. During the whole of Ibn Barrī’s life the Crusades were in progress (capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders, 1099; disastrous defeat of the Crusaders at Ḥa…
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