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Oppianus

(811 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ὀππιανός/ Oppianós). [German version] [1] From Corycus, Author of a didactic poem on fishing O. from Corycus in Cilicia, author, to be distinguished from O. [2], of a didactic poem entitled Ἁλιευτικά/ Halieutiká, 'On Fishing', 3506 verses in 5 books, which is dedicated to Marcus [1] Aurelius and Commodus (177-180 AD). Sources for his biography: vitae in a series of manuscripts; according to which O. was banished by Septimius Severus and received back into Rome by Caracalla (Suda s.v. Ὀ.; Athen. 1,13c). Content: books 1 and 2 …

Ancient languages, teaching of

(6,842 words)

Author(s): Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) | Raeburn, David Antony (Oxford RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) I. Germany (CT) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Methodical instruction in the classical languages Latin and Greek (in earlier times also Hebrew) as well as guided reading and interpretation of Latin and Greek texts is designated as instruction in the classics. Apel, Hans Jürgen (Bayreuth RWG) [German version] B. History (CT) Classical languages have been taught since ancient times, when Greek was studied in Rome. In medieval preparatory schools/Latin schools, Latin was the focus of instruction. Grammar, rhetoric a…

Colluthus

(381 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Κόλλουθος; Kóllouthos). A Greek native of Lycopolis in Egypt, who lived during the reign of Anastasius I (AD 491-518). Biography: Suda s.v. Κόλουθος, 3,1951, according to this Cod. Ambrosianus gr. 661; for the form of the name cf. [1, XI-XII]. Epic poet, author of a poem about the Calydonian Boar Hunt ( Kalydōniaká in six bks.), of encomia (hymns of praise) in hexameters and of an epic poem Persiká, which may have dealt with Anastasius's triumphs over the Persians in the year 505 (cf. [4]). His surviving work is a small epic poem in 392 verses, the ‘Rape of Helen…

Phoronis

(129 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Φορωνίς/Phorōnís). Epic by an anonymous author, 7th/6th cent. BC. It received its name from a hero from Tiryns, Phoroneus, the 'father of all men' (fr. 1 PEG). The frequency of the word πρῶτος/ prȏtos, 'the first', in the fragments indicates the poet's interest in the first beginnings of human life. Fr. 2: the Daktyloi Idaioi discover the art of Hephaestus. Fr. 4: Callithoe [2] is the first to adorn the great statue of the 'Argive' Hera: the epithet is problematic (bibliography in [1. 120]). Paus. 2,15,5 and 2,1…

Soterichus

(104 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Σωτήριχος/ Sōtḗrichos). Epic writer of the 3rd/4th cents. AD from Hyasis (in Libya), lived under Diocletianus (AD 284-305), and, according to Suda s. v. Σ., wrote an encomium to him. Further works: Bassariká or Dionysiaká (4 books), Pantheia of Babylon, Ariadne, Life of Apollonius of Tyana, Python or Alexandriacus (on the storming of Thebes by Alexander [4] the Great) and an epic on his own homeland; Schol. Lycoph. 486 [2. 64111] also mentions Kaledōniaká (on the myth of the Caledonian boar) [2]. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 FGrH 641 2 M. Ch. G. Müller,…

Eudaemon

(181 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐδαίμων; Eudaímōn). Correspondent of  Libanius (Ep. 167; 255; 633) and his ‘fraternal’ friend for over thirty years (cf. Ep. 108; 132; 164; 315; 632; 826; 1057), from Pelusium in Egypt, born before AD 337 (probably c. 314/24: [2. 279]), died before AD 392. According to the Suda (ε 3407) a ‘grammarian’ (but he may also have taught rhetoric), author of a Τέχνη γραμματική/ Téchnē grammatikḗ (‘Grammar’) and an Ὀνοματικὴ ὀρθογραφία/ Onomatikḕ orthographía (‘Orthography of Names’) (cf. Lib. Ep. 255,7, regarding E.'s opinion on the vocative of Ἡρακλῆς/ Heraklês), which …

Epimerismi

(588 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] ἐπιμερισμοί ( epimerismoí) are ‘subdivisions’ (Apollonius Dyscolus, Syntaxis 491,13 Schneider-Uhlig; Lat. partitiones,  Priscianus) ‘of verses or sentences into words’ (this is the sense, in which Sext. Emp. Adv. Math. 1,159-168 in the 2nd cent. AD used μερισμός; merismós): each word was analyzed grammatically and prosodically, and sometimes also semantically. It is a teaching aid of the Byzantine School (Tzetzes on Hes. Op. 285); in the 11th-12th cents., it was referred to as schedographia (‘writing of didactic pieces’, σχέδη ( schédē), of uncertain etymolo…

Menophilus

(33 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] of Damascus, known only from 15 hexameters cited by Stobaeus from his poem ‘Tresses (Πλοκαμῖδες/ Plokamîdes), a song on the beauty of his beloved's hair. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography SH 558.

Callistus

(78 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Κάλλιστος; Kállistos). Author of an epic about the Persian Wars of Emperor  Iulianus, whom he accompanied on his campaigns in his role as domesticus (Socr. 3,21,14-17). He reports how the emperor died having been slain by a daimon. Possibly he is identical with Callistion, the epic poet and assessor of the praefectus praetorio Orientis Sallustius Secundus, to whom Libanius addressed his letters no. 1233 and 1251. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography O. Seeck, RE Suppl. 4, 864.

Poseidonius

(2,115 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ποσειδώνιος/ Poseidṓnios). [German version] [1] Doctor, end of the 4th cent. BC Doctor at the end of the 4th cent. BC, who wrote about mental illnesses and about ephiáltēs, a feeling of suffocation (cf. demons V. C.; Aet. 6,12). P. was taken by Philostorgius (Historia Ecclesiastica 8,10) to be the source for the assertion that insanity is not the result of demonic affliction, but has a physical cause in the form of an imbalance in the bodily fluids (Humoral theory). Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] [2] Greek grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Alexandrian grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC,…

Nonnus

(1,593 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Νόννος; Nónnos) from Panopolis (the modern Aḫmīm) in Egypt. There are no biographical records, with the exception of Anth. Pal. 9,198 (possibly a dedication written by the poet himself for his own work [33. 166-168; 23]). It is assumed that the origin of the name, found in Egypt from the 4th cent. AD, was Syrian or Egyptian (‘pure’), but a connection to the Greek familiar diminutive nénnos (‘uncle’ or ‘grandfather’) cannot be excluded. The dating is uncertain: the terminus post quem is taken to be a work by Claudianus [3] (394-397), which was known to N., and the terminus an…

Heracleon [1-4]

(362 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn). [German version] [1] Favourite of Antiochus [10] VII, 1st cent. BC from Beroea, a favourite of Antiochus [10] VIII, caused the latter's death in 96 BC during a plot to become king, but was foiled by the succession of Seleucus VI to the throne. H.'s son Dionysius ruled parts of northern Syria incl. Bambyce, Beroea and Heraclea (Pomp. Trog. prologus 39; Str. 16,2; 7; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,365; Ath. 4,153b). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Pirate leader, 1st cent. BC Pirate leader, defeated the fleet of Syracuse in 72 BC ( Heraclius [2]) and pe…

Eirenaeus, Irenaeus

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Εἰρηναῖος; Eirēnaîos). Grammarian, student of Heliodorus the metrician, 1st cent. AD ( terminus ante quem due to the quotation in the Hippocratic lexicon by Erotianus, 116,8 Nachmanson). He probably taught also in Rome under the Latin name of Minucius Pacatus (perhaps the rhetor Pacatus in Sen. Controv. 10, praef. 10). He was not a freedman [2]. The Suda mentions him in the praefatio and s.v. ‘E.’ (ει 190) as well as s.v. ‘Pacatus’ (π 29), and lists numerous titles of grammatical and lexicographical writ…

Philogelos

(832 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Φιλόγελως/ Philógelōs, 'the Lover of Laughter'). The only collection passed down from antiquity of 265 individual Greek jokes (in different recensions; with regard to the MS tradition see [1. 129-146; 8]), compiled between the 3rd [11] and 5th cent. AD. In the MSS, it is attributed to Hierocles and the grammarian Philagrius (not identifiable; hypotheses in [2. IV-V]). Dating indications are the allusion in § 62 to the festival of AD 248 celebrating the foundation of Rome and the m…

Triphiodorus

(563 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Τριφιόδωρος/ Triphiódōros, from the theonym Triphys, Graecized as T.; MSS and Byzantine sources: Tryphiódōros). Greek epic poet, 2nd half of 3rd cent. AD (only biographical testimony: Suda s. v. T.), Egyptian by name, probably from Panopolis [1. 4-7]. Author of works including (cf. [1. 15]) the epic Μαραθωνιακά ( Marathoniaka, 'Marathonic Histories' [1. 11 f.]), the mythical epic Hippodámeia and a lipogrammatic (i.e. written with the constraint of the regular omission of selected letters) Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια λειπογράμματος/ Odýsseia leipográmmatos, cf. …

Menalcas

(75 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Μενάλκας; Menálkas). Bucolic poet, protagonist of Theoc. 8 alongside Daphnis. Both Hermesianax (fr. 2 and 3 Powell) and Sositheus (fr. 1a-3 Snell) mention his unrequited love for Daphnis. In Vergilius' Bucolica his name appears frequently as the poet's alter ego and as a figure associated with a tragic love story. M. is probably not a historical person. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography F. Michelazzo, s.v. Menalca, Enciclopedia Virgiliana, 3, 1987, 477-480 (with bibl.).

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Habron

(310 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Ἅβρων; Hábrōn). Greek grammarian, a slave of Phrygian origin, taught (and perhaps also studied) first on Rhodes, then in Rome in the 1st half of the 1st cent. AD (Suda α 97 Adler). He was a student of the Aristarchian  Tryphon and dealt with the same topics as the former although he took another position and also criticized the teaching of Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace in regard to pronouns (cf. [1. 1520; 7. 91]). Nine quotations from his work Περὶ ἀντωνυμίας (‘On the pronoun’) ar…

Troilus

(434 words)

Author(s): Eiben, Susanne (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Τρωίλος/ Trōílos, Lat. Troilus). [German version] [1] Son of Priamus Son of Priamus (or Apollo) and Hecabe (Hom. Il. 24,257; Apollod. 3,151). The sparse early textual records yield only that T. - referred to by the epithet hippochármēs ('horse fighter' or 'chariot fighter', Hom. Il. 24,257, on this [1. 292]) - was killed by Achilles [1], an event which according to Proclus (45 Kullmann, [1. 291-293]) had been presented earlier in the Kýpria . The many visual representations from the Archaic Period indicate that the story of T. was well known …

Eutecnius

(225 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] (Εὐτέκνιος; Eutéknios). The famous Cod. Vindobonensis med. gr. 1 (late 5th cent. AD) with the herbal of Pedanius Dioscorides also contains prose paraphrases on  Nicander's Thēriaká and Alexiphármaka [4; 2; 5]. A remark in a manuscript attributes them to a ‘rhetor’ (σοφιστής; sophistḗs) by the name of E., who is to be dated sometime between the 3rd and 5th cents. AD [3. 34-37]; without any solid proof, the following anonymous paraphrases are also attributed to the same E.: on  Oppianus' [4; 6] Halieutiká (from 3,605) and, from as early as C. Gesner in 1555, on…
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