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Herennius

(1,606 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Common Italian proper name (associated with the praenomen Herennus that is often confused with H.), which however is not documented as a surname among the Roman upper class until the 1st cent. BC. It frequently appears with epithets showing place of origin ( Etruscus, Gallus, Picens, Siculus). In the Imperial period it is the name of Caesar Q.H. [II 3] Etruscus, son of emperor  Decius [II 1], of the historian H.  Dexippus [2], and of the jurist H.  Modestinus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I Republican Period [German version] [I 1] H. Centurio and murderer of Cicero Centurio, who at the…

Castor

(571 words)

Author(s): Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Κάστωρ; Kástōr). [German version] [1] see Dioscuri see  Dioscuri Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] [2] C. of Rhodos Greek historian, 1st cent. BC Greek historiographer of the first half of the 1st cent. BC, whose vita in Suda s.v. is confused with that of the homonymous Galatian dynast, author of Chronicle in six books from Belus ( Baal) and  Ninus (2123/2 BC) on until the restructuring of the Near East by Pompey (61/0 BC), with lists of kings and officials from Assyria, Sicyon, Argus, Athens, Alba and Rome. The structure of his many-stra…

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Proculus

(587 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Basel) | Et al.
Röm. Praenomen ( P. Iulius, ein Zeitgenosse des Romulus [1]), und sekundär Cognomen. Der Bildung nach ein Deminutivum (älter * prokelo-) zum Stamm * proko- ( klass. procus “Bewerber, Freier”), bedeutet es urspr. etwa “wer (das Erbe?) fordert, beansprucht”. Etym. ist Proca (König von Alba Longa) anzuschließen. Das schon früh selten gewordene Praen. lebt in Ableitungen, den Gent. Procilius und Proculeius, fort. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [English version] [1] röm. Jurist, 1. Jh. Der Jurist aus der Zeit der Julio-Claudier, verm. Schüler des Antistius [II 3] Labeo…

Marcellinus

(1,062 words)

Author(s): Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
Siehe auch Markellinos. [English version] [1] Bf. von Rom seit 296 Röm. Bischof seit 296 n.Chr., laut Liber Pontificalis 1,61 aus Rom gebürtig; nach Eus. HE 7,32 soll er während der Verfolgung unter Diocletianus am 24.10.304 hingerichtet worden sein. Seine Haltung in der Verfolgungszeit ist jedoch umstritten. Sein Name fehlt im Chronograph von 354 (MGH AA 9,1,70). Augustinus verteidigt M. gegenüber den Donatisten, die ihn des Verrats bezichtigen (contra litteras Petiliani 2,92,102; de unico baptismo 16,27)…

Priscus

(884 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
Common Roman cognomen ('venerable') . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek grammarian (Πρεῖσκος/ Preîskos). The 3rd cent. AD PTurner 39 (PIenensis inv. 267), a book catalogue from a private library, presents at line 4 'a commentary on epic verses by P.' [2], who is identified as one of the two Prisci mentioned in Ov. Pont. 4,16,10 ( Priscus uter); he may be identical to Clutorius Priscus, the Roman equestrian and poet mentioned in Tac. Ann. 3,49 and Cass. Dio 57,20,3-4. Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) Bibliography 1 SH 710 A 2 R. Otranto, Antiche liste di libri su papi…

Septimius

(3,206 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Et al.
Nomen gentile, probably originally Etruscan, occurred at Rome only from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A certain S. from Camerinum was commissioned to recruit followers for Catilina at Picenum in 63 BC, presumably because he was of the Umbrian-Picenan municipal nobility (cf. CIL I2 1921; 1929) (Sall. Catil. 27,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Friend of Horace's; he hoped to enter the cohors amicorum of a member of the imperial household through his relationship with the latter (Hor. Carm.…

Petronius

(3,217 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] High official of the late 4th/early 5th cents. AD Vicarius Hispaniarum AD 395-397, at the court of Mediolanium [1] (Milan) from 398; addressee, with his brother Patroinus, of numerous letters from Symmachus. He gained an unknown office in 401 ( comes rerum privatarum?). From 402-408, P. was praef. praet. per Gallias; while there, he introduced a convocation of the seven provinces, which met annually at Arelate (Arles) (Zos. Epist. 8 = MGH Epp 3, p. 14). He may have been recalled in connection with the usurpation of Constantine…

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Furius

(2,916 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name eines altröm. Patriziergeschlechtes (inschr. auch Fourios), abgeleitet vom Praenomen Fusus und gelegentlich auch in der lit. Überlieferung in der urspr. Form Fusius vorkommend; die Familie stammte vielleicht aus Tusculum (vgl. das Familiengrab der Furii ILLRP 895-903). Die zahlreichen Angehörigen der Gens aus der frühen Republik im 5./4. Jh. v.Chr. sind als histor. Personen kaum greifbar, und ihre Geschichte ist z.T. spätannalistische Erfindung. Am bekanntesten ist der “Retter Roms” nach der Gallierkatastrophe M…

Hierokles

(1,185 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Straßburg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς). [English version] [1] Karischer Söldnerführer des 3. Jh. v. Chr. Karischer Söldnerführer des 3. Jh. v.Chr., vereitelte 287/6 mit Herakleides den Handstreich der athen. Demokraten auf den Peiraieus und die Munychia (Polyain. 5,17). Unter Antigonos [2] Gonatas hatte H. die Position eines maked. phrúrarchos (“Kommandant einer fest stationierten Truppe”) im Paeiraieus inne und war mehrfach Gastgeber des Königs. Er war mit dem damaligen Leiter der Akademie, Arkesilaos [5], befreundet (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) und mit Menedemos bekannt (Diog. Laert. 2,127). Demetrios [2] E…

Furius

(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] B. La…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Iulius

(17,472 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name einer alten patrizischen Familie, wohl verbunden mit dem Götternamen Iuppiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. Die gens gehörte zu den sog. “trojanischen Familien”, die angeblich unter König Tullus Hostilius [I 4] aus Alba Longa nach Rom übergesiedelt waren (s.u.). Im 5. und 4. Jh.v.Chr. waren die Iulli bedeutend. Unklar bleibt die Verbindung zum Zweig der Caesares, die ab dem 3. Jh. hervortraten und deren herausragender Angehöriger der Dictator Caesar war [Stammbaum: 3. 183f.]. Sein Adoptivsohn, der spätere Kaiser Aug…

Licinius

(9,829 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basel) | Et al.
Name der wohl bedeutendsten plebeischen Familie Roms. Die etr. Namensparallele lecne und die Verbindung der Gens nach Etrurien in histor. Zeit (L. [I 7]) deuten auf eine Herkunft aus dieser Region [1. 108, Anm. 3]; der Name kann aber auch lat. Ursprungs sein (Licinus). Schreibung mit n-Verdoppelung nicht nur in der griech Form Λικίννιος, sondern auch in lat. Inschr. [1. 108, Anm. 1]. In der annalist. Überl. zur Gesch. der frühen Republik erscheinen die Angehörigen unter den ersten Volkstribunen und erreichen mit dem Initiator der Licinisch-Sextischen Ges…

Iulianus/-os

(4,346 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Beinamen bei vielen Gentilicia [1]. Bekannte Personen: der Jurist Salvius I. [1], der Arzt I. [2], der Kaiser I. [11], gen. “Apostata”, die Bischöfe I. [16] von Aeclanum und I. [21] von Toledo. [English version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus röm. Jurist, 2. Jh. Jurist, geb. um 100 n.Chr. in Nordafrika, gest. um 170 n.Chr., war ein Schüler des Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) und der letzte Vorsteher der sabinianischen Rechtsschule (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., dessen Ämterfolge die Inschr. aus Pupput/Prov. Africa (CIL VIII 24…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…
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