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(348 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πλευρῶν; Pleurôn). City in south-western Aetolian Aeolis [2] (ethnic names Πλευρώνιος/ Pleurṓnios and Πλευρωνεύς/ Pleurōneús, the area was called Πλευρωνία/ Pleurōnía, Str. 10,2,5). Listed as an Aetolian city in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639), P. had broken away from the Aetoloi in the 6th/5th cent. BC (Thuc. 3,102,5) and at the end of the 5th cent. became a member of the Achaean League (…


(304 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Hellenistic states | Athenian League (Second) (Θέρμος, Θέρμον/ Thérmos, -on). Religious centre from the Archaic period onwards of Aetolian tribes to the north east of Lake Trichonis/modern Limni Trichonida (Aetolians, with map), 'League sanctuary' of the koinón from the 4th cent. BC, in which annual festivals with markets and the League's main assembly took place (Pol. 5,7,8; Liv. 31,32,3; Ethnicon Θέρμιος, IG IX 12 1, Z. 102; cf. Pol. 5,6,6; Str. 10,3,2) [1]. Apollo Thermios, A…


(150 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεῦκτρα; Leûktra). Town (τόπος, Str. 9,2,39, cf. Plut. Mor. 773b) and plain (τὰ Λεῦκτρα) in Boeotia in the area of Thespiae. The exact localization near Leuktra (formerly Parapoúgia) is uncertain. L. became famous through the battle of 371 BC, in which the Boeotians under the leadership of Epaminondas defeated Sparta [3. 49-59]. Remains of a tropaion [1] from the 3rd cent. BC are preserved (rebuilt today…


(195 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Παγαί/ Pagaí, ethnic name Παγαῖος/ Pagaîos; Att. and lit. Πηγαί/ Pēgaí or Πηγαῖος/ Pēgaîos). Port city in Megaris on the Corinthian Gulf, identified with the remains of a fortified harbour settlement near what is today Alepochori. In 461 BC P. was occupied by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,103,4) who undertook marine operations from that location (Thuc. 1,111,2). During the 30-year peace the Athenians were forced to return P. to Megara [2] (Thuc. 1,115; cf. IG I3 1353). The fortunes of P. we…


(136 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
(Σύβοτα/ Sýbota). [German version] [1] Island group Island group off the coast of Epirus opposite the southern tip of Corcyra [1]. In 433 BC a sea battle took place there between Corcyra and Corinth ([1]; Thuc. 1,47,1; 50,3; Str. 2,5,20; 7,7,5). In AD 551 the islands were plundered by the Ostrogoths (Procop. Goth. 4,22,30). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. S. Morrison et al., The Athenian Trireme, 22000, 62-69. [German version] [2] Harbour Harbour on the coast of Epirus opposite the S. [1] island group, modern Limani Murzo. In the 5th cent. BC, S. was …


(111 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τριποδίσκος; Tripodískos). One of five villages which developed into Megara [2]; the founder of T. was considered to be Coroebus [1] (Paus. 1,43,8 with an explanation of the  place name;  cf. Callim. Fr. 31; Plut. Mor.  295b; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). T. is to be found in the foothills of the Gerania and on a strategically important route to  Delphi (Thuc. 4,70,1 f.), about 7 km to the northwest of Megara. In T., Apollo was worshipped, and in his honour a festival was probably instituted in Megara. The comedy writer Susarion (Susarion, fr. 2) was from T. Freitag, Klaus (Münst…


(442 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Θέσπεια/ Théspeia, Hom. Il. 2,498, Hdt. 8,50,2; also Θεσπιαί/ Thespiaí, Xen. Hell. 5,4,10, IG VII 1862; Lat. Thespiae). City in South Boeotia. South of present-day T. (formerly Erimocastrum) [1], remnants of the polyandreîon (mass grave) with those who fell in 424 BC at Delium [1] are extant [2]. The city area (survey: [3]) comprised Siphae and Creusis on the Gulf of Corinth, the plain of Leucta in th…


(189 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Σῖφαι; Sîphai). Boeotian port on the Gulf of Corinth (Boeotia, with map). In the 5th cent. BC, S. was a port (επίνειον/ epíneion) dependent on Thespia (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.; 77,1; 89,1 f.; SEG 24, 361), from the Hellenistic period onwards it was an autonomous member of the Boeotian League with close relations with Aegosthena (IG VII 207). In the Roman period S. was called Τίφα/ Típha; the inhabitants thought of themselves as particularly skilful sailors (Paus. 9,32,4). The helmsman of the Argo…


(149 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Lat. Sarabaitae). Certainly without direct evidence, Benedict of Nursia criticizes the Sarabaitae (Coptic: 'living scattered away from the monastery'?) in his classification of monasticism: they do not subject themselves to rules and live together in twosomes or threesomes as they see fit (Regula Benedicti, ch. 1). His source is the Regula Magistri, which in turn refers to the only authentic witness, Cassianus (Cassian. Conlationes patrum 18,7). A similar group, the Remnuoth (Coptic, probably: 'living individually'), is mentioned…


(106 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Παραυαῖοι; Parauaȋ oi). An Epirote tribe of the upper valley of the Aous, still ruled by kings in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,80,6; on their location: Arr. Anab. 1,7,5). Belonging to Macedonia under Philip (Philippus [4]) II, the P. (who may be identifiable with the Παρῶροι/ Parôroi, SGDI 1350,2; 1355,4; SEG 23, 471; or the Παρωραῖροι/ Parōraȋroi, Str. 7,7,6; 7,7,8; 8,3,18) were ceded to Pyrrhus I of Epirus, probably in 294 BC. Further evidence: Plut. Pyrrhus 6,2; Ptol. 3,12,38; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π. and s.v. Χαονία. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire…


(555 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (ἔθνος; éthnos, pl. ἔθνη/ éthnē) has multiple meanings in Greek and refers to different types of groups, e.g., warrior bands (Hom. Il. 3,32) or large ethnic groups (Hdt. 1,101). From the classical period, ethnos was often juxtaposed to the term   pólis (cf. Hdt. 5,2; 8,108; regarding Aristotle's [6] discussion of éthnē: [1; 2]). For some time research considered the polis (‘city state’) as the highest developmental phase of the state in Hellas, while éthnos (‘tribe’) supposedly constituted an earlier and more primitive form [3]. The current view is more…


(82 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Πασσαρών; Passarṓn). Religious centre and settlement of the Epirote Molossi near the modern Rhopotopi 12 km northwest of Jannina. Alongside remains of a fortified settlement from the 5th/4th cent. BC, foundations of a temple are extant, identified as the sanctuary of Zeus Areios. Sources: SEG 26, 719; Plut. Pyrrhus 5,1-5; Liv. 45,36,4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography S.I. Dakaris, Organisation politique et urbanistique de la ville dans l'Epire antique, in: P. Cabanes (ed.), L'Illyrie méridionale et l'Epire dans l'antiquité, 1987, 71-80.


(272 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
(Θίσβη/ Thísbē, Θίσβαι/ Thísbai). [German version] [1] City in southwestern Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians City in southwestern Boeotia (on the name see [1]), about 4 km from the coast at the foot of Mount Helicon [1]; remains of the settlement with a circular wall [2] survive at modern T. (formerly Kakosi; [3]). On the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) there were several ports dependent on T. [4]. An embankment led from T. through the plain to the coast (P…


(98 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Φύταιον/ Phýtaion). City in Aetolia on the south of Lake  Trichonium (ethnic name Φυταιεύς/ Phytaieús, cf.  IG IX 12 1,24,6f.; probably also Φυρταῖος/ Phyrtaîos, SGDI 1949,16), identified with the ancient remains at modern Palaiochori, to the south of Kapsorachi. According to inscriptions, citizens of P. frequently provided officials for the Aetolian League (cf. [1. col. IV 46]; IMagn. 28,14); mentioned in literature only in Pol. 5,7,7 and 11,7,5 and Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ. Aetolians, Aetolia (with map) Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 BCH 45, 1921. S. Bomme…

Ophieis, Ophioneis

(112 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ὀφιεῖς/ Ophieîs, Ὀφιονεῖς/ Ophioneîs). One of the three Aetolian sub-tribes living in the highlands of Aetolia in the 5th cent. BC. It disintegrated into smaller associations, among whom the Bomieis and the Callieis are known (Thuc. 3,96,3; 3,100). In 426 BC, the O. were attacked by the Athenians (Thuc. 3,84,4-98,5). After the formation of the Aetolian League in the 4th cent., they formed a member state of the koinon (Str. 10,2,5; 10,3,6; SGDI 1978,3; 1862,2; IG IX 12, 1, 32; 46). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography P. Funke, Polisgenese und Urbanisierung in Ait…


(160 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Ταφίων νῆσοι/ Taphíōn nêsoi). Group of islands between Leucas and the Acarnanian coast, the main island of which can probably be identified with modern Meganisi, in ancient sources called Táphos, Taphioûs or Taphioûssa. Carnus [2] (probably modern Kalamos) was considered one of the T. (Scyl. 34; Str. 10,2,14; 20; 24; Plin. HN 4,53; 36,150; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τάφος). In the 'Odyssey', the Taphii are considered seafarers and dreaded pirates (Hom. Od. 1,105; 181; 14,452; 15,427; 16,426). The island group is suppose…


(209 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἁλίαρτος, Ἀρίαρτος, Ἁρίαρτος; Halíartos, Aríartos, Haríartos [1. 483]). Boeotian city on the southern edge of Lake Copais, 20 km west of Thebes. The acropolis with archaic Athena sanctuary is located on the hill Kastri Mazíou, which was settled from the Middle Helladic to the Roman period and was adjoined by the fortified lower city. In the 6th cent. BC, H. ─ mentioned by Homer (Il. 2,503) ─ struck coins with the …


(493 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] [1] Acarnian town This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Οἰνιάδαι/ Oiniádai, occasionally Οἰνειάδαι/ Oineiádai). Acarnanian city near the mouth of the Achelous [1] (Thuc. 2,102,2f.; Str. 10,2,21). The city area, located near what is now Katochi, is located on a hill measuring 3 km in length and 2 km in width. Remains of the six-kilometer long city wall have been preserved, along with gate and tower installat…


(84 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Χορσίαι, Χορσία; Chorsíai, Chorsía). Isolated Boeotian town on the Gulf of Corinth, above the bay of Hagios Sarandi. At first a dependency of Thespiae; independent in the 4th cent. BC. Phocians occupied C. in 347/346 BC, using it as a base for incursions into Boeotia. In 346 BC Philip II gave C. back to the Boeotians, after levelling its walls (sources: Dem. Or. 19,141; Scyl. 38; Diod. Sic. 16,58,1; Plin. HN 4,8; StV 3,565; SEG 22,410). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 187-196.


(1,667 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in north-western Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Linear B | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Persian Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὀρχομενός/ Orchomenós; Boeotian Ἐρχομενός/ Erchomenós, LSAG 95, no. 17). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) [German version] A. Geography City in north-western Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,511) at the foot of Mount Acontium on the north-western shore of Lake Copais near modern Skripou, today once more called Orkhomenos. The polis had an extensive hinterland, in…
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