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Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha

(1,925 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg
"Apocrypha" and "Pseudepigrapha" are terms used for labelling Jewish and also early Christian writings apart from the biblical canon(s) and for their presentation in various collections. This entry explains the origins and meaning of the two terms, their use since the debates of the early Reformation period and the problems related with the use of these terms in light of recent scholarship.⸙IntroductionUnder the label "Apocrypha" and "Pseudepigrapha," scholarship usually presents collections, editions, and translations of non-canonical Early Jewish (and…
Date: 2023-11-20

Beloved Disciple

(639 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg
[German Version] “The disciple whom Jesus loved” describes an anonymous figure in the Gospel of John (John, Gospel of); he appears along with Peter at the Last Supper (13:23), at the foot of the cross (19:26f.), and in the Easter narrative (20:2–20; 21:7, 20–23). John 21:24 says that he wrote the Gospel, thus inseparably linking him with the question of the Go…

Nazoreans, Gospel of the

(306 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg
[German Version] The Gospel of the Nazoreansis what we call the Aramaic gospel read by the Nazoreans, although the name Evangelium Nazaraeorum is first attested in the 9th century, in the work of Haymo of Auxerre (PL 116, 994B), who cites comments made by Jerome. According to Eusebius ( Hist. eccl. IV 22.8), Hegesippus already knew of an Aramaic gospel c. 160–170ce. Fragments that might go back to such a gospel (and are distinct from the frgms. of the Gk Gospel of the Hebrews ) appear in the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, Jerome, and the Latin editor of Orige…


(343 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg
[German Version] The Nazoreans (or Nazarenes) were a 4th/5th century group of Jewish Christians (II), first mentioned by Epiphanius of Salamis ( Haer. XXIX: Ναζωραῖοι/ Nazōraíoi) and Jerome ( Nazaraei/ Nazareni) and later, independently, by Augustine of Hippo and Theodoret of Cyrrhus. The name is derived from Ναζωραῖος/ Nazōraíos, a Grecized form of Aramaic נָצְרָיָה/ nāṣrāyā, found in the New Testament as an epithet of Jesus “of Nazareth” (Matt 2:23; 26:71; etc.), with echoes of Hebrew נֵצֶר/ nēṣer (“shoot”: Isa 11:1) and נָזִיר/ nāzîr (“consecrated”: Judg 13:5, 7; 16:7; etc.; ¶ …


(10,035 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Koch, Klaus | Frey, Jörg | Zachhuber, Johannes | Mesch, Walter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. General. The words for time denote in different languages, according to their etymological derivation and symbolic semantic field, different ways of dividing natural and cultural forms of progression and sequences of events into parts separated and distinguished from one another. The German word for time, Zeit, comes from Old High German zīt; “divide (up)”, from the root *dāi, “divide,” and implies the general dividing function of ideas of time, as factors in ordering experience of the world. Different ideas of time …


(3,183 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term substitution, originating in the language of law, is used primarily in Christian theology, but it is well suited for use in religious studies as well, even though so far there has been no detailed systematic treatment of it. In the most general sense, we speak of substitution when the true subject affected or acting (God, an individual like the king, or a collective) is represented by another ¶ entity (a person or group, an animal, or an object) as a substitute involved (actively or passively) in the action, acting for the…


(2,576 words)

Author(s): Betz, Hans Dieter | Frey, Jörg | Marquardt, Manfred | Thiede, Werner | Pierard, Richard
[German Version] I. Religious History 1. Since the dawn of time, human birth has been associated with many religious ideas, rituals, and customs, including the idea of rebirth or regeneration. As a rite of passage (Rites of passage), birth is not merely a natural process; it can repeat a previous birth, view death as a passage to new life, or distinguish within a lifetime between a corporeal and a spiritual birth, separated by a ritual death. The Greek terminology is not uniform, using ἀναγεννᾶν/ anagennán, ἀναβιοῦν/ anabioún, μεταγεννᾶν/ metagennán, πάλιν γίνεσϑαι/ pálingínesthai, an…