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(12,033 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historical survey 1.1. Terminology and early modern interpretationSince the mid-19th century,  Reformation (from Latin  reformatio, “restoration,” “transformation”) has been a specialized term for one side of the 16th-century events that tore Western Christendom apart into mutually antagonistic confessional churches; its antonym, denoting the other side, is  Counter-Reformation.Previously the term had carried the general meaning of “reform.” In the ecclesiastical and political reform movements of the late Middle Ages, we find both  reformatio and the verb  reform…
Date: 2021-03-15


(1,987 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin | Sikora, Michael
1. Religious discipline 1.1. General considerationsIn the modern period there is an evident increased effort in all confessions to subject the lives of the faithful to Christian norms. Research into confessionalization was for a long time limited to church discipline (Ger. Kirchenzucht , Fr. discipline ecclésiastique), equating it with social discipline[10] or placing it in parallel with state defense against criminality. It is only recently that the aspects of “self-regulation” have been emphasized [11] and discipline has been classified with church efforts towards…
Date: 2019-10-14


(10,680 words)

Author(s): Wendebourg, Dorothea | Schilling, Johannes | Strohm, Christoph | Null, John Ashley | Friedrich, Martin | Et al.
1. Historischer Überblick 1.1. Begriff und neuzeitliche DeutungR. (von lat. reformatio, ›Wiederherstellung‹, ›Umgestaltung‹) ist seit der Mitte des 19. Jh.s spezieller Terminus für die eine Seite jener Vorgänge, durch die im 16. Jh. die westl. Christenheit in mehrere einander antagonistische Konfessionskirchen auseinandertrat; sein Antonym, welches die andere Seite bezeichnet, ist Gegen-R.Zuvor hatte der Begriff die allgemeine Bedeutung von Reform. So begegnet reformatio bzw. die zugrundeliegende verbale Form reformare in den kirchl. und polit. Reformbewegungen…
Date: 2020-11-18


(1,764 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin | Sikora, Michael
1. Religiöse Disziplin 1.1. AllgemeinesIn der Nz. zeigt sich in allen Konfessionen ein gesteigertes Bestreben, das Leben der Gläubigen christl. Normen zu unterwerfen. Die Forschung zur Konfessionalisierung war lange auf Kirchenzucht (engl. church discipline oder Christian discipline, franz. discipline ecclésiastique) verengt und setzte diese mit Sozialdisziplinierung gleich [10. 502] oder parallelisierte sie der staatlichen Kriminalitätsabwehr. Erst neuerdings werden die Aspekte der »Selbstregulierung« betont [11. 680] und die Zucht in das kirchliche Bemühen…
Date: 2019-11-19

9. Unions, Alliances and World Communions in the Protestant World, 19th Century

(7,872 words)

Author(s): Friedrich, Martin
In: Volume 1 Dawn of Ecumenism | Part II. Prehistory: The Challenges of Modernity previous chapter 1 Introduction The Reformation, which had once set out to renew the one (Western) Church, not only led to a schism between Catholics and Protestants but also to further separations and divisions among the latter. Even before Luther’s death, the division into a Lutheran and Reformed wing had already become firmly established. The “radical” (i.e. non-magisterial) Reformation of the 16th century also led to the emergen…