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Laelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a family which probably came from Campania. The military successes of L. [I 1] in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) and the connection to the elder Scipio probably gained them Roman citizenship and the ascent into the nobility. A younger line ( praenomen D.) became consuls under Augustus (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., C. Consul 190 BC, elder contemporary of Scipio Africanus Born around 235 BC, died around 160; L. owed his political ascent to the close (and what has become a proverbial) connection to P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio …

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Ligurius

(112 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Uncommon gentilicium name that is unlikely to be related to the tribe of the Ligures and that is epigraphically attested during the Republic in Rome (CIL I2 1092) and Praeneste (CIL I2 1449). [German version] [1] L., A. Friend of Caesar and the brothers of Cicero, died in 47 BC Friend of Caesar and the brothers of Cicero (Cic. Att. 11,9,2), died during the Civil War in 47 BC (Cic. Fam. 16,18,3f.). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [2] L., Cn. Military tribune in 197 BC Fell in 197 BC as military tribune in the battle against the Ligurians in Gallia Cisalpina (Liv. 33,22,8). Frigo, Thomas (Bon…

Munatius

(2,051 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
[German version] A. (Roman) Name of a Roman plebeian family, of which the branch of the Planci acquired political significance in the 1st century BC. Its most prominent member is M. [I 4], cos. in 42 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Flaccus, L. Took part in an attempt on the life of Cassius Longinus in 48 BC From Hispania Baetica; he escaped after a failed attempt on the life of the Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, a follower of Caesar's, in Corduba in 48 BC (Bell. Alex. 52,3f.). In 46/5 as a follower of the younger…

Livineius

(338 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name (probably Etruscan root), encountered in the late Republic and early Imperial period, it is however rather rare. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Regulus, L. Acquaintance of Cicero, who probably shared Cicero's banishment to Greece in 58 BC Acquaintance of Cicero, of about the same age, who around 58 BC probably shared Cicero's banishment to Greece (Cic. Att. 3,17,1; Cic. Fam. 13,60,1). The year of his service as praetor, deduced from coinage of his son L. [I 2], remains unclear. MRR 2,464. Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L. Regulus, L. Partici…

Mescinius

(101 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Roman gens, evident in the names of some individuals of the late Republican period, also in the Greak-speaking areas (CIL I2 2247). [German version] [1] M. Rufus, L. Quaestor 51 BC, assigned to Cicero in Cilicia In 51 BC, M was assigned as quaestor to the proconsul Cicero in Cilicia. Differences in their reports cast a shadow over their relations (Cic. Att. 6,3,1; 4,1; Cic. Fam. 5,20). Cicero attempted to cover up this resentment when he tried to win M. over as an adversary of Caesar (Cic. Fam. 5,21,1; 13,28,2). MRR 2,242. Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography Schulze, 193, 272, 288.

Ligarius

(356 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Roman gens, originally from the Sabine area, from which only a few individuals can be identified, all of those in the troubles of the Civil War. [German version] [1] L., P. Partisan of Pompey, taken prisoner in 49 BC near Ilerda and pardoned when he promised neutrality, executed in 46 AD near Thapsus as he had broken his word Partisan of Pompey. Taken prisoner in 49 BC near Ilerda as an officer in the army of L. Afranius [1] and pardoned when he promised future neutrality. Again among Caesar's adversaries in Thessalia and Africa: Caesar had him, who had…

Marathon running

(402 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] The marathon as an agonistic discipline is an invention of the modern age. Longer foot races than the dólichos (max. 24 stadia = c. 4∙6 km) were not known to antiquity. Just as the dólichos was originally run in the context of the training of messengers ( hēmerodrómoi; dromokḗrykes), the marathon was ultimately part of (military) communication. The ancient tradition regarding the narration of the unique marathon after the Persian battle (490 BC) is scant: according to Plutarch (Mor. 347c) an Athenian hoplite in armour ( hoplitai ) ran from the bat…

Minucius

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens. The patrician bearers of the name from the 5th and 4th cents. BC that have come down to us are of disputed historicity, in any case the early family history has been embellished in the late Republic.  It is these Minucii that later membesrs (from the 3rd century BC) trace themselves back to. A prominent cognomen is Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] and [I 5 and 6]), deriving from the first plebeian augur M. [I 7], applied only subsequently to the early Republican members. The political zen…

Nasidius

(205 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] [1] N., L. Cnaeus Pompey's fleet commander in 49 BC Cnaeus Pompeius's fleet commander. In 49 BC he was sent out with a squadron from Dyrrhachium to Massalia to support L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus (Caes. B Civ. 2,3,1f.. Once there he shirked from a sea battle against D. Iunius [I 12] Brutus Albinus and made his way to Spain without a fight (Caes. B Civ. 2,4,4f.; 7,1f.). After active service in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Bell. Afr. 98,1; Cic. Att. 11,17a,3), N. died in North Africa in 46 BC together with the supporters of Pompeius. MRR 2, 271. Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) [German version] [2] N…

Hortensius

(1,235 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably derived not from hortus but from the place names Hortense, Hortenses [1. 660; 2. 175; 177; 534]. The first definitely attested bearer of the name is H. [4], the most prominent member the orator H. [7]. Family tree: [3. 75]. [German version] [1] H., L. Praetor 170 BC As praetor in 170 BC commanded the fleet in the third Macedonian War (honours in Athens: IG II2 907, and Delos: IDélos III 461 Aa 83). He conquered Abdera, sold its population into slavery, and oppressed Chalcis, but had to rescind his orders by instruction o…

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Memmius

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian gens name, whose bearers may have originated from the territory of the Volscians and who rose to prominence (in several branches) during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. They rose to consular rank only with M. [I 4]. The descent of the gens from the Trojan Mnestheus (Verg. Aen. 5,117) is a late-Republican construction. An aedile called M. supposedly instituted the Cerealia (before 211 BC; RRC 427). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Popular politician at the end of the 2nd cent. BC Popular politician at the end of the 2nd centur…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Naevius

(1,767 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name, perhaps derived from the praenomen Gnaivos ( Gnaeus, Cn.); popular etymology derives it from naevus, ‘birthmark’ (Arnob. 3,14). The antiquity of this name in Rome, which is also widely attested in inscriptions, is suggested by the name of porta Naevia in the Servian city wall (Varro, Ling. 5,163; cf. Liv. 2,11,8). However, the family emerged politically only in the 2nd cent. BC. The most important bearer of the name is the poet N. [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N., Cn. Dramatist and epic poet, 3rd cent. BC Roman drama…

Hortensia

(75 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] Daughter of the famous orator Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus. She is praised for having inherited the abilities of her father (Val. Max. 8,3,3; Quint. Inst. 1,1,6). In 42 BC, H. appeared successfully in the forum as a spokesman for prosperous Roman women against an exceptional war tax imposed by the triumvirs (App. B Civ. 4,135-146). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography M. H. Dettenhofer, Frauen in polit. Krisen, in: Id. (ed.), Reine Männersache?, 1994, 140f.

Numerius

(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions: Niumsis, Νυμψισ, Νο(μ)ψισ < * Numesis (the Latin N. as well is most frequent in the former Oscan region); in addition there is the Umbrian Numesier (= Latin Nomesi; bilingual inscription [3. 9]). In Latin the original Oscan-Umbrian name was affected by rhotacism and was ass…

Mevulanus, C.

(53 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] As military tribune of the consul C. Antonius [I 2] in 63 BC, he conspired with the Catilinarians ( Catilina) at Pisaurum (modern Pesaro). He was later attacked by the quaestor P. Sestius near Capua (Cic. Sest. 9; homonym: ILS 2994). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography MRR 2,170 Schulze, 215.

Herennius

(1,606 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Common Italian proper name (associated with the praenomen Herennus that is often confused with H.), which however is not documented as a surname among the Roman upper class until the 1st cent. BC. It frequently appears with epithets showing place of origin ( Etruscus, Gallus, Picens, Siculus). In the Imperial period it is the name of Caesar Q.H. [II 3] Etruscus, son of emperor  Decius [II 1], of the historian H.  Dexippus [2], and of the jurist H.  Modestinus. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I Republican Period [German version] [I 1] H. Centurio and murderer of Cicero Centurio, who at the…

Laronius, Q.

(55 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] From Bruttium; in 36 BC, sent to Sicily with three legions by M. Vipsanius Agrippa [1] during the fighting against Sex. Pompeius to support Octavian, and afterwards acclaimed as imperator (CIL X 8041,18). Suffect consul in 33 with L. Vicinius (CIL I2 p. 66 = Fasti Venusini). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
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