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Sturm, Johann

(785 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Thorsten (Gießen)
A. LifeThe German Protestant Humanist, pedagogue and diplomat Johann S. was born on October 1, 1507 at Schleiden (Eifel), and died on March 3, 1589 on his estate at Nordheim, west of Strasbourg. He attended school at Schleiden, then trained at Liège (1521-1524) with the Brethren of the Common Life. Between 1524 and 1529, he studied the artes liberales at the Collegium trilingue in Leuven, taking a master's degree in 1527. After that, he worked as an academic teacher and editor of ancient texts. From 1529 to 1536, he studied medicine and law while also t…
Date: 2016-11-24

Luther, Martin

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Thorsten (Gießen)
A. LifeThe German religious reformer Martin L. was born on November 10, 1483 at Eisleben (Saxony-Anhalt) as Martin Luder (styling himself Luther from 1517 after the Greco-Latin Eleutherius, 'the free one'), and died there on February 18, 1546. He received a basic Latin schooling at Mansfeld, Magdeburg and Eisenach from 1496/97 to 1501, and went on to study the  artes liberales at the Univeristy of Erfurt from 1501 to 1505, graduating Magister artium. He began studying law in 1505, and shortly afterwards entered a monastery of the Augustinian Hermits. He studied t…
Date: 2016-11-24

School

(4,519 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Thorsten (Gießen)
A. DefinitionThe dawn of the early modern period saw a "process of fundamental change" [8.74]; [33.197] in the S. as an institution and in the imparting of knowledge. Schooling (Education) increasingly had to serve political and social needs. At the same time, changes to the goals of Humanist education led to improvements in the quality of S.s [8.74 f.]. As monastery and cathedral S.s waned in importance in the Late Middle Ages, the schooling of children and young people increasingly passed to urban institutions (and later princely S.s), from the …
Date: 2016-11-24

Occasional poetry

(2,178 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Thorsten (Gießen)
A. Definition and ancient models O. represents an important, perhaps the greater part of the production of Humanist neo-Latin poetry [15.54]. This article focuses mainly on neo-Latin poetry, with brief discussion of 16th and 17th-cent. vernacular O. in the concluding remarks.The defining features of O. according to the current view in literary science are a poem's connection with (1) an occasion and (2) an addressee. A public or private event offered an occasion for a poet to write a poem to an addressee, publicly to celebrate the e…
Date: 2016-11-24

Melanchthon, Philipp

(2,429 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Thorsten (Gießen)
A. LifeThe German Humanist, religious reformer and polymath Philipp M. was born Philipp Schwarzerdt on February 16, 1497 at Bretten (near Karlsruhe). His patron Philipp Schwarzerdt (Johannes Reuchlin honoured him with the Hellenized Humanist surname M. in 1509), M. died on April 19, 1560 at Wittenberg. After studying Latin at the town Lateinschule and with the private tutor Johannes Unger in 1508/09, he obtained an excellent education at the Pforzheim Lateinschule, including learning Greek. He studied the artes liberales at Heidelberg from October 14, 1509, joining the…
Date: 2016-11-24