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Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Cyrtones

(144 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Κύρτωνες; Kýrtōnes). Small Boeotian city (πόλισμα) on the border with eastern Locris, north-west of Hyettus on a pass to Korseia leading across the Chlomon mountains; probably to be identified with the sparse ancient remains near modern Kolaka. The old name was Cyrtone (Κυρτώνη; Kyrtṓnē, Paus. 9,24,4). In the Roman period there was a temple and grove of Apollo and Artemis in C., as well as a spring sacred to the nymphs. References: Paus. 9,24,4; cf. also Hdn. De prosodia catholica 3,1,293; 337; Hdn. De paronymis 3,2,861; Steph. Byz. s.v. Kyrtones. Funke, Peter (Münste…

Hippotae

(94 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱππόται; Hippótai). Boeotian settlement (κώμη; kṓmē) between Thisbe and Coronea, probably identifiable with ancient remains near modern Koukoura on a high plateau on the eastern slope of the southern peak of Helicon, known as Paliaovouna. Thebes besieged and destroyed H. at an indeterminate time and divided the land between Thisbe and Coronea. Named in Plut. Mor. 775 A-B. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography A. R. Burn, Helikon in History, in: ABSA 44, 1949, 317f., 321 Fossey, 339 Pritchett 5, 156 A. Schachter, Reconstructing Thespiai, in: A. Hurst, A. Schachter…

Chaeronea

(522 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Χαιρώνεια, Χηρώνια; Chairṓneia, Chērṓnia). Westernmost town of  Boeotia on the border to Phocis, located in the northern foothills of the Thurion range in the Cephissus valley near the modern C. (formerly Kapraina). Sources: Paus. 9,40,5-41,7; Str. 9,2,37. A prehistoric settlement has been found to the north-east on the banks of the Cephissus [2. 382f.], a Mycenaean chamber tomb close t…

Medeon

(495 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Phocian city in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra (Μεδεών/ Medeṓn; ethnicon Μεδεώνιος). Phocian town in the eastern part of the bay of Anticyra [2] (Str. 9,2,26; Paus. 10,36,6; Hdt. 1,38,21; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.), localized in the fortified centre of which the considerable remains can be found on the hill-top of the modern Hagioi Theodoroi (the acropolis of M.) and in the surrounding area. These remains include a section of the surrounding wall, with three towers; outside the wall, on…

Eleon

(130 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἐλεών , Ἑλεών; Eleṓn, Heleṓn). Boeotian town (Plin. HN 4,26), already mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,500, between Thebes and Tanagra near the mod. Harma (formerly: Dritsa). The town, which was fortified anew during the Middle Ages, was settled from the Early Helladic to the Roman period. Still independent in the classical period (Paus. 1,29,6), later E. together with Harma, Mycalessus, and Pharae formed a synoecism dependent on Tanagra (…

Harma

(167 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἅρμα; Hárma). Boeotian settlement on the Thebae - Chalcis [1] road between Teumessus and Mycalessus, already listed in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,499; Str. 9,2,26); mentioned in connection with the disappearance of  Amphiaraus or the rescue of  Adrastus [1] (Str. 9,2,11; Paus. 1,34,2; 9,19,4). For some time, H. together with Eleon, Mycalessus and Pharae formed an association of villages subordinate to Tanagra; i…

Acraephia

(608 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀκραίφια, Ἀκραιφία, Ἀκραιφίαι, Ἀκραίφιον, Ἀκραίφνιον, Ἀκραίφνια; Akraíphia, Akraiphía, Akraiphíai, Akraíphion, Akraíphnion, Akraíphnia. On the name: [5. 125]). Boeotian town on the eastern edge of the former Lake Copais on the western foothills of Mount  Ptoon, north of a deep bay, which, from about the 6th cent. BC to the 1st cent. AD, was separated from the lake by a frequently renewed dam a…

Aspledon

(131 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἀσπληδών, Σπληδών; Asplēdṓn, Splēdṓn). Boeotian town, 20 stades north of  Orchomenus on the other side of the Melas; because of their climate, A. and its surrounding area were renamed Εὐδείελος (‘the sunlit’, Str. 9,2,41); the settlement was abandoned because of water shortage (Paus. 9,38,9). A. has been localized near Pyrgus (formerly: Xeropyrgos) (Hom. Il. 2,511; Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀ. and s.v. Ὑηττός; Nonnus, Dion. 13,94). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 360-363 J. Knauss,…

Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Libethria, -um

(111 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Λειβήθριον, Λιβήθριον; Leibḗthrion, Libḗthrion). Boeotian mountain range with a cult cave and spring sanctuary of the Muses and ‘L(e)ibethridian’ nymphs c. 7 km from Coronea; either the part of Helicon situated in the south-west between the mountains Megali Lutsa (1,548 m) and Paliovuna (1,747 m) or the mountain range stretching from modern Coronea east to modern Petra. Sources: Paus. 9,34,4; Str. 9,2,25; 10,3,17; Verg. Ecl. 7,21 with Serv. Ecl. 7,21. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geogr. von Griechenland 1, 1862, 236 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίο…

Hysiae

(210 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles (Ὑσίαι; Hysíai). Boeotian town on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron east of Plataeae, west of Erythrae (Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Paus. 9,1,6), c. 2 km east of modern Erythres (formerly Kriekouki) near the church of Pantanassa. Before the battle of Plataeae in 479 BC, the Persian encampment on the Asopus stretched from Erythrae through H. to Plataeae, whereas the Greek army initially took up a position near Erythrae, then moved via H. to the sanctuary o…

Pharae

(247 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] City in southern Messenia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Φαραί/ Pharaí, Φηραί/ Phēraí). City in southern Messenia (Str. 8,4,4f.; 5,8; 7,5; Paus. 4,30,2-31,1; Ptol. 3,16,8 (Φεραί/ Pheraí); Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; [1. 181]), modern Kalamata. In Homer (Hom. Il. 5,543; 9,151; 293) one of the seven cities Agamemnon promised Achilles [2], Spartan perioikoi city. In 394 BC its territory was devastated by Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,7; Nep. Conon 1), made a part of the territory of Messana [2] by Philip [4] II at …

Potniae

(129 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Πότνιαι/ Pótniai, Ποτνιαί/ Potniaí). Boeotian town c. 2 km south of Thebes on the road to Plataeae (Xen. Hell. 5,4,51) at the modern Tachi, with sanctuaries of Demeter, Kore and Dionysus Aigobolos, and a spring whose waters were said to madden horses (Paus. 9,8,1; Str. 9,2,24; Verg. G. 3,266 ff.; Ael. NA 15,25). It was identified with the Hypothebae mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,505 (Str. 9,2,32). At the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War, the population of the unfortified town, which belonge…

Hyle

(156 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Ὕλη; Hýlē). [German version] [1] Place in Boeotia This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Place in Boeotia (Hom. Il. 2,500; cf. Str. 9,2,26; Steph. Byz. s.v.). According to Hom. Il. 5,707ff. (with Paus. 9,38,7; Str. 9,2,27), H. is on the Copais, according to Str. 9,2,20, on the  Hylice (see also Stat. Theb. 7,267f.). Attempts by Wallace and Knauss [3. 82f.; 2. 243-278] to identify it with one of the prehistoric settlement locations between the former Copais and the modern Hylike equate H.…

Pteleum

(300 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πτελεόν; Pteleón). [German version] [1] Place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae Fortified place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae [2], not located with certainty (Plin. HN 5,117; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). As a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,390 f.; 486; 2,82) P. was at times formally independent, but in fact it was dependent on Erythrae. P. is mentioned by Thuc. (8,24,2; 8,31,2) in connexion with the naval war in the waters around Miletus [2] and Chios in the winter of 412/1 BC (Peloponnesian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Keil, P.…

Ocalea

(93 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Ὠκαλέη/ Ōkaléē, Ὠκαλέα/ Ōkaléa, Ὠκάλεια/ Ōkáleia). City in western Boeotia, mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,501 and Hom. H. ad Apollinem 242, located at the southern edge of the former Lake Copais; later ancient authors gave varying accounts of O.'s location; cf. Str. 9,2,26f.; Plin. HN 4,26; Dionysius Kalliphontos 99; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ. Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 314-318  S. Lauffer, Kopais, vol. 1, 1986, 63-65  E. Visser, Homers Katalog der Schiffe, 1997, 266f.  P.W. Wallace, Strabo's Des…

Oedipodia

(58 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] also Oedipodeia (Οἰδιποδ(ε)ία/ Oidipod(e)ía). Spring (modern-day Hagioi Theodori) located northwest of Thebes on the road to Chalcis [1] (Paus. 9,18,5f.; Plin. HN 4,25; Solin. 7,22); here Sulla celebrated his victory over Archelaus [4] with a festival held in 86 BC (Plut. Sulla 19,11,464f.). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography N.D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, vol. 5, 21981, 118-121.

Hypatus

(64 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Ὕπατος; Hýpatos). Located above Glisas, modern Sagmatas, southern ridge of Mt. Messapion in Boeotia, on which there was probably a shrine to Zeus Hypatos (Paus 9,13,3) on the site of the monastery (with many ancient re-used stones). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 223-225 H. G. Lolling, Reisenotizen aus Griechenland (1876 and 1877), 1989, 506f. N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 21981, 122-125.

Oenophyta

(86 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] (Οἰνόφυτα/ Oinóphyta). Hamlet, c. 10 km to the southeast of Tanagra and to the north of the Asopus [2] near modern Inofita (once Staniates). Here, the Athenians defeated the Boeotians (Boeotia) in the battle of 457 BC, thus gaining supremacy over central Greece (Thuc. 1,108,3 with schol. 4,95,3; Diod. Sic. 11,83,1; Pl. Menex. 242b; Aristot. Pol. 1302b 29; Plut. Mor. 345d; Aristeid. 1,221; 3,328; 13,28; schol. Aristoph. Lys. 801; SEG 19, 363). Funke, Peter (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 58-60  E. Kirsten, s.v. O., RE 17, 2257f.
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