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Prooemium

(1,192 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] I. Concept Greek προοίμιον/ prooímion, (tragedy:) φροίμιον/ phroímion, Latin prooemium, prohoemium: 1) hymn to the gods (as an opening), 2) introductory section of a poem, 3) beginning of a speech, 4) introduction. As was already realized in Antiquity [8. 19], prooímion is etymologically related to οἴμη ( oímē, ‘song’, ‘story’, Hom. Od. 8,74; 8,481; 22,347) and οἶμος ( oȋmos, ‘stripe’, Hom. Il. 11,24; ‘path’ = ‘song’, H. Hom. 4,451 [4. s. v. οἴμη]). Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) [German version] II. Greek literature 1) In Greek poetry, the so-called Homeric Hymns

Ustica

(115 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Οὐστίκα/ Oustíka; also modern Ústica). Small (8·6 km2, 239 m high) originally volcanic island off the northwestern coast of Sicily (Plin. HN 3,92; Ptol. 3,4,17), 57 km to the north of Panormus [3] in the Mare Tyrrhenum, probably identical to the νῆσος Ὀστεώδης/ nêsos Osteṓdēs counted among the Aeoli insulae in Diod. Sic. 5,11,1 (cf. Mela 2,7,120). Archaeological excavations in the area of I Faraglioni (Colombaia): a prehistoric settlement of the middle Bronze Age and graves with Phoenician or Carthaginian grave goods; also m…

Priamel

(300 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] The German term P riamel, neuter, but feminine since Lessing, derives from the Latin adjective praeambulus (first in Mart. Cap.; ThLL s. v. praeambulus), 'preceding'; it has been used in modern literary scholarship for small German poems of the 12th-16th cents. that place exempla in series [2; 7. 8-12]. F. Dornseiff introduced it into the interpretation of Greek and Roman literature [8. 2]. Priamels may have come into existence in many literatures because of the simplicity of their serial structure [8. 1]; in ancient texts they occur as ear…

Aphorism

(512 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Ἀφορισμός; aphorismós). [German version] A. Definition Today the aphorism is an independent literary genre (on the difference from the  apophthegma [3. 29-33]); its formal distinguishing features are: the restriction with regard to the connection, the arbitrariness of the sequence of numerous aphorisms, the tight, also pointed formulation, the astute, critical, even unconventional and provocative interpretation of human conditions [4. 773 and (examples) 774-781; 6]. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Significance in antiquity Greek ἀφορισμός means…

Palindrome

(274 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] In literary theory a palindrome, corresponding to παλίνδρομος ( palíndromos, 'running backwards'), denotes a sequence of letters - a word, sentence or verse ( versus supinus, recurrens; [2. 278f.] on Mart. 2,86,1-2; cf. Sid. Epist. 9,14,4-6) - that can also be read backwards with the same or a different sense, occasionally resulting also in the same or a different verse. A palindrome in the strict sense corresponds to itself mirror-wise from the middle outwards. Thus in Late Antiquity 'crab verse' (καρκίνος/ karkínos or καρκινωτόν/ karkinōtón) was a familiar for…

Mandrobulus

(87 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Μανδρόβουλος; Mandróboulos). The theophoric name is derived from ‘Mandrus, a - deduced - god of Asia Minor. A drama by Cleophon and a dialogue by Speusippus are named after M. The proverb ἐπὶ τὰ Μανδροβούλου χωρεῖ τὸ πρᾶγμα was already no longer understood in antiquity; the ancient Paroimiographoi offered conjectures with regard to its explanation - as in Suda ε 2659, 2716 - presuming that it related to turns for the worse. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography W. Kroll, s.v. Mandroboulos, RE 14, 1039f.

Acrostich

(733 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek ἀκροστιχίς ( akrostichís; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,62,6), ἀκροστίχιον ( akrostíchion; Or. Sib. 11, 17 and 23) and plur. τὰ ἀκρόστιχα ( tà akrósticha; as a heading: Anth. Pal. 9,385). Letters, syllables or words that start consecutive verses or especially lines of verse (ὁ στίχος, ho stíchos; verse, lines of prose), or strophes and form a meaningful connection. As a result of this feature the whole poem also came to be known as acrostich. If a vertical row of letters, highlighted i. a. by spacing, formed the acrostich, this was termed παραστιχίς ( parastichí…

Guido

(231 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] Latin author, identified as G. Pisanus ([4], a different view in [6]); c. 1119 he wrote an encyclopaedic compilation De variis historiis (‘On various historical matters’) in 6 books. For the sections Geographica and Descriptio totius maris he excerpted the  Geographus Ravennas, following him very closely. In the Geographica he copied the latter's personal reference to Ravenna as his hometown (Geographica 20,20), but apart from that, as evidence of his education, he displays his knowledge of Classical writers and historians, as …

Araspes

(83 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀράσπας; Aráspas). Distinguished Median (βασιλέως Χαράσπου on a coin [1]), in Xenophon's Cyropaedia (5,1,1-20; 6,1,31-44; 3,14-20 ; cf. Plut. De prof. in virt. 15, Mor. 84 f.; De curios. 13, Mor. 521 et al) one of the model figures; a faithful, reliable friend of Cyrus, even if he became infatuated with Pantheia, the wife of king Abradates, when she was entrusted to him. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 W. Judeich, s. v. A., RE 3, 381 2 W. Knauth, S. Nadjmabadi, Das altiranische Fürstenideal, 1975.

Anecdote

(403 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Today one understands an anecdote to be a short oral story, often with one punch line, also including some humorous words, and which has a claim to be factually representative of some specific aspect of personalities or political-social circumstances [3. 641]. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) [German version] B. Antiquity Initially, ἀνέκδοτος ( anékdotos) was the technical designation for unpublished texts (Diod. Sic. 1,4,6; Cic. Att. 14,17,6; Clem. Al. Strom. 1,1,14; Synesius, Ep. 154a Garzya). Certainly Cicero (Att. …

Paraklausithyron

(390 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (παρακλαυσίθυρον/ paraklausíthyron, 'lament at the door <by a lover>'). The Greek word has been handed down in Plutarch's Erōtikós (Plut. Mor. 753a/b); he mentions it in a sequence with a komos (Komast cups) at the door of a beloved, the decoration of her image, and an athletic battle with rivals (cf. Pl. Symp. 183a). Paraklausithyra, which centre on the situation of the spurned lover as one locked out ( exclusus amator) and group the other statements around it, are not found in this form in Greek literature until the Hellenistic period [4]. Its com…

Nymphodorus

(192 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Νυμφόδωρος; Nymphódōros). [German version] [1] Greek author of travel literature from Syracusai, 3rd cent. BC Greek author of travel literature from Syracusae. Towards the end of the 3rd cent. BC, he wrote - presumably as entertainment - Períploi Asías (and Eurṓpēs?) which includes the story of the slave leader Drimacus (FGrH 572 F 4), and, probably separately, Perì tôn en Sikilíai thaumazoménōn (‘Wonders of Sicily). Paradoxographoi; Periplus Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) Bibliography A. Giannini (ed.), Paradoxographorum Graecorum reliquiae, 1966, 112-115  Id., Studi su…

Apophthegma

(466 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] A. Definition Greek ἀπόφθεγμα ( apóphthegma), Latin facete dictum, also sententia: with reference to a certain situation, often a difficult one, these have a claim to authenticity; they are usually short, often enigmatically formulated expressions -- as already in the earliest apophthegms that have survived from Theramenes (Xen. Hell. 2,3,56), Anaxagoras (Aristot. Metaph. 1009b 26), Pittacus (Aristot. Rh. 1389a 14-16), Stesichorus (Aristot. Rh. 1395a 1-2). In this way the apophthegma differs from the related   chreia , the  aphorism …

Megaclo

(84 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Μεγακλώ; Megaklṓ). Daughter of the Lesbian king Macar. In a rationalistic interpretation, the Lesbian local historian Myrsilus of Methymna represents her (FGrH 477 F 7, cf. Arnob. 3,37) as the founder of the seven Lesbian Muses: she taught seven slave women to celebrate the deeds of ancient times with lyres, thus softening the grudge the king held against his wife. In gratitude, M. erected bronze statues in their honour in a sanctuary and instituted cult worship. Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)

Synkrisis

(311 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (σύγκρισις/ sýnkrisis; Latin comparatio). In ancient literature, synkrisis refers to the comparative juxtaposition of people and things. Through its agonal element, it is related to the genre of debate, both in prose and verse [9]. From the time of Homerus [1], comparisons were used to highlight a person or thing, from which synkrisis developed as a weighted ordering of similarities and differences in all literary genres. In rhetorical theory [6. 330-332, 336-339], the aim of synkrisis included praise (αὔξησις/ aúxēsis, Aristot.  Rh. 1368a 19-29; Encomium)…

Thrasyalces

(125 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Θρασυάλκης; Thrasyálkēs). 'One of the old nature philosophers' (τῶν ἀρχαίων δὲ φυσικῶν εἷς οὗτος, Str. 17,1,5; 35 fr. 1 DK; [1. 2343; 2]) from Thasos probably in the 5th cent. BC. T. assigned the winds to either Boreas or Notus, the two main winds (Str. 1,2,21; Posidon. FGrH 87 F 74 with comm., critically explained by [1. 2343 f.]). Th. saw the cause for the Nile floods (Nile) in the summer rains of Nubia which in turn were caused by masses of clouds blown in from the north [2] (or the south(?) [4. 1377 f.]) (Str. 17,1,5; Lydus, Mens. 4,107; Posidon. FGrH 87 F 79 with comm.). …

Zetema

(837 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(ζήτημα; zḗtēma), plur. zētḗmata (ζητήματα), 'search', 'investigation', 'research questions'. [German version] I. Definition A widespread Greek term for a philosophical-exegetical method of questioning and the subject of an investigation, as well as for the kinds of texts that deal with such questions. The verb ζητεῖν ( zēteîn, generally 'to search') and its derivatives ζήτησις ( zḗtēsis, 'search') and zḗtēma were directed either to a state of affairs (Eur. Bacch. 1218-1221: Cadmus brings the body of Pentheus, which Agave has torn apart, "after he had …

Anagnostikoi

(242 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Ἀναγνωστικοί; anagnōstikoí). Aristotle mentions (Rhet. 3,1413b 12-14) the poets  Chaeremon and  Licymnius as ἀναγνωστικοί, ‘suitable for reciting’. At Rh. 3,1413b 2-1414a 28, he allocates to the style of expression which is influenced by contention, and whose unrefined style has the most need for a histrionic presentation (ἀγωνιστικὴ δὲ ἡ ὑποκριτικωτάτη, 3,1413b 9), the judicial oration and the public speech, especially the latter with its large audience (3,1414a8-17). By contrast…

Spoudogeloion

(309 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (σπουδογέλοιον/ spoudogéloion, epigraphically also σπουδαιογέλοιον/ spoudaiogéloion). Compound of 'serious' ( spoudaîon) and 'laughable' ( geloîon). These two contradictory modes of interpretation and presentation are often combined in ancient literature, as in Aristoph. Ran. 391 f., Phaedr. 4,2,1-4; in Pl. Symp. 222 Socrates requires that the same person should be able to compose both tragedies and comedies. There is critical reflection on the relationship between s poudaîon and geloîon: Pl. Leg. 816d-e, Aristot. Eth. Nic. 1176b 27-1177a 6 and …

Stratonicus

(128 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] (Στρατόνικος/ Stratónikos) from Athens, 4th cent. BC [1], kithara teacher. Tradition claims that he was the first to play on multiple strings, to teach music theory to his students and to compose a table of modes (διάγραμμα/ diágramma) [3; 4. 367 f.]; “he was also a brilliant master of witticisms ( geloîon)” (Ath. 8,352d). In fact, S. was famous for his clever speech ( eutrápeloi lógoi; Ath. 8,348c) and the ready wit of his answers ( eustochía; ibid. 8,352d). A collection of his jokes can be found in Ath. 8,40-46, pp. 347f-352d (for other jokes, see [3]). …
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