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Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(1,090 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
(?1493-942/1536), Grand Vizier of Süleymān I, known to the chroniclers as ‘Maḳbūl’ (“the favourite”) and ‘Maḳtūl’ (“the executed”), was probably born near Parga, on the coast of Epirus. Enslaved as a child, he was brought up in the “Palace School”, and then attached to the service of Prince Süleymān while he was governor of Maʿnīsa (according to other accounts he was taken in a raid by Iskender Pas̲h̲a and presented to Prince Süleymān at Kefe; or was taken by pirates and sold to a widow near Maʿ…

Edirne

(4,120 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, Adrianople —a city lying at the confluence of the Tund̲j̲a and Arda with the Merič (Maritsa); the capital of the Ottomans after Bursa (Brusa), and now the administrative centre of the vilâyet (province) of the same name and, traditionally, the centre of Turkis̲h̲ (now Eastern) Thrace (Trakya or Pas̲h̲a-eli). Its historical importance derives from the fact that it lies on the main road from Asia Minor to the Balkans, where it is the first important staging point after Istanbul. It guards the eastern entr…

Āmedd̲j̲i

(370 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
(t.), an official of the central administration of the Ottoman Empire; before the tanẓīmāt , he was directly subordinate to the Reʾīs ül-Küttāb ; he made copies of reports written by the latter, and also drafted reports on minor matters; in short, he performed all the clerical duties connected with the office of Reʾīs ül-Küttāb. Moreover, he was present at meetings between the Reʾīs Efendi and ambassadors, and kept official minutes of the proceedings. He, like the Beylikd̲j̲i , held the title of Ḵh̲ w ād̲j̲agānli̊ḳ . The name and origin of this office derives from the Persian word āmad

D̲j̲ānbāzān

(580 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
(Persian plural of d̲j̲ānbāz, see previous article)—the name of a military corps in the Ottoman Empire. It is not known when exactly the corps was founded, although it may have been in the reign of Ork̲h̲ān G̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]. The d̲j̲ānbāzān served only in time of war, like the ʿazab [ q.v.], g̲h̲arībān and čerek̲h̲ōr (“territorial” miners and sappers). Grzegorzewski ( Z sidzyllatów Rumelijskich epoki wyprawy wiedeńskiej , Lwôw 1912, 53 ff.) believes, however, that they were organized in 844/1440 by Murād II [ q.v.] to meet the first Balkan expedition of John Hunyady and that the…

Ḥekīm-Bas̲h̲i̊

(926 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
( Ḥakīm-bas̲h̲i̊ ), “Chief of the Physicians”, in the Ottoman Empire the title of the chief Palace physician, who was at the same ¶ time head of the health services of the state: besides being in charge of all the Palace physicians, surgeons, oculists, pharmacists, etc., he exercised supervision over all the physicians of the Empire, Muslim or non-Muslim; it was he who appointed and dismissed all physicians, surgeons and pharmacists, who kept a check on them, who examined aspirants to these professions, and who appointed and promoted worthy candidates. Physicians were employed in the…

Ibrāhīm

(921 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, eighteenth Ottoman Sultan, was born on 12 S̲h̲awwāl 1024/4 November 1615, the youngest son of Aḥmad I [ q.v.]. He spent all his early life in close confinement, in constant fear of being put to death (as four of his elder brothers were); so that when Murād IV [ q.v.] died and Ibrāhīm, the sole surviving prince of the dynasty, was called to ascend the throne, only the combined persuasions of his mother Kösem and the Grand Vizier Ḳara Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a [ qq.v.] induced him to emerge (16 S̲h̲awwāl 1049/8 February 1640). The capable Ḳara Muṣṭafā remained in power for the first four years of…

Dede Ag̲h̲ač

(211 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, now Alexandropolis, town on the Aegean coast of Thrace, founded in 1871, after the construction of the branch railway from the main Rumeli line. Being an outlet for the products of the hinterland it prospered rapidly, so that in 1300/1883 it supplanted Dimetoka as the centre of a sand̲j̲aḳ , ( mutaṣarri̊fli̊ḳ ) of the wilāyet of Edirne. In 1894 the sand̲j̲aḳ, of Dede Ag̲h̲ač comprised the kaḍās of Dede Ag̲h̲ač, Enez (Inos) and Sofrulu; the ḳaḍā of Dede Ag̲h̲ač comprised three nāḥiyes , Fered̲j̲ik, Meg̲h̲ri and Semadrek, and 41 villages. This was the posi…

Dāwūd Pas̲h̲a

(420 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, Ḳod̲j̲a, Darwīs̲h̲, d. 904/1498, Ottoman Grand Vizier. Of Albanian origin, he came through the dews̲h̲irme to the Palace School. In 876/1472, as beylerbeyi of Anadolu, he fought under Prince Muṣṭafā, wālī of Konya, against the Aḳḳoyunlu Yūsufča Mīrzā. In the battle against Uzun Ḥasan at Otluk-beli in 878/1473, he was in command of the vanguard. He served in the Bog̲h̲dan campaign of 881/1476 and, as beylerbeyi of Rumeli, in the operations in Albania and the siege of Is̲h̲kodra (883/1478). After the acc…

Ḳorḳud b. Bāyazīd

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, Abū l-Ḵh̲ayr Muḥammad (874-919/1470-1513), prince ottoman qui était l’aîné des huit fils de Bāyazīd II [ q.v.]. Né à Amasia, où son père était gouverneur (Latīfī, Tad̲h̲kira, 66; Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Taʾrīk̲h̲, 181; cf. Kemāl-pas̲h̲a-zāde, Tawārīk̲h̲-i Āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān, ms. Millet 32, fol. 23; Hüseyin Hüsameddin, Amasya tarihi, III, 226). II passa sa jeunesse et reçut sa première instruction au Vieux Palais d’Istanbul sous la surveillance de son grand-père Meḥemmed II; après la mort de ce dernier, en 886/1481, il fut mis sur le trôn…

Edirne

(4,191 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, Andrinople, ville située au confluent de la Tund̲j̲a et de l’Arda avec le Merič (Maritsa), capitale des Ottomans après Bursa (Brousse) et actuellement centre administratif du vilâyet du même nom, ainsi que, traditionnellement, centre de la Thrace (Trakya on Pas̲h̲a-eli) turque (de nos jours, orientale). Son importance historique provient de sa situation sur la route principale menant d’Asie Mineure aux Balkans, où elle est la première étape importante après Istanbul. Elle garde l’entrée orientale du passage naturel entr…

Ḳorḳud b. Bāyazīd

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, Abu ’l-K̲h̲ayr Muḥammad (874-919/1470-1513), Ottoman prince and eldest of the eight sons of Sultan Bāyazīd II [ q.v.]. He was born in Amasya where his father was governor (Laṭīfī, Tad̲h̲kira , 66; Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, Taʾrīk̲h̲, 181; Cf. Kemāl-pas̲h̲a-zāde, Tawārīk̲h̲-i āl-i ʿOt̲h̲mān , Millet ms. 32, f. 23 etc., and Hüseyin Hüsameddin, Amasya tarihi, iii, 226). He spent his childhood and had his early education in the Old Palace at Istanbul in the care of his grandfather Meḥemmed II, after whose death in 886/1481 he was briefly placed o…

Ḏj̲ānbāzān

(550 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
(pi. persan de d̲j̲ānbāz, voir art. précédent), nom d’un corps militaire de l’empire ottoman. On ne connaît pas exactement la date de sa création, qui peut se placer sous le règne d’Ork̲h̲ān G̲h̲āzī [ q.v.]. Les d̲j̲ānbāzān ne servaient qu’en temps de guerre, comme les ʿazabs [ q.v.], les g̲h̲arībān et les čerek̲h̲ors (mineurs et sapeurs «territoriaux»). Grzegorzewski ( Z Sidzyllatów Rumelijskich epoki wyprawy Wiederiskiej, Lwów 1912, 53 sqq.) pense cependant qu’ils furent organisés en 844/1440 par Murād II [ q.v.] pour faire face à la première expédition balkanique de Jean…

Āmedd̲j̲i

(349 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
(t.), appellation d’un fonctionnaire de l’administration centrale de l’Empire ottoman qui, avant les Tanẓīmāt, dépendait directement du Reʾīs-ül-küttāb; l’ āmedd̲j̲ī copiait des rapports écrits par ce dernier, rédigeait aussi des pièces de moindre importance et, d’une façon générale, faisait fonction de secrétaire du Reʾīs-ül-küttāb. En outre, il assistait à toutes les conférences du Reʾīs efendi avec les ambassadeurs et rédigeait les procès-verbaux des entretiens. Il avait le titre de Ḵh̲wād̲j̲agānli̊ḳ comme le Beg̲h̲likçi. Le nom de cette fonction est tiré du mot persan āmad…

Ibrāhīm

(922 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, dix-huitième sultan ottoman, né le 12 s̲h̲awwāl 1024/4 novembre 1615, fils cadet d’Aḥmad Ier [ q.v.], passa toute sa jeunesse dans une stricte réclusion, craignant constamment d’être assassiné, comme l’avaient été quatre de ses aînés; si bien que lorsque Murād IV [ q.v.] mourut et qu’Ibrāhīm, seul prince survivant de la dynastie, fut appelé à monter sur le trône, il fallut les efforts de persuasion combinés de sa mère Kösem et du grand-vizir Ḳara Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a [ q.vv.] pour le décider à se manifester (16 s̲h̲awwāl 1049/9 février 1640). L’homme capable qu’était Ḳara Muṣṭafā demeur…

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
(vers 899-942/1493-1536), grand-vizir de Süleymān Ier, appelé par les chroniqueurs Maḳbūl, le favori, et Maḳtūl, l’exécuté, naquit probablement près de Parga sur la côte de l’Épire. Réduit à l’esclavage dans son enfance, il fut élevé à l’«École du palais» puis attaché au service du prince Süleymān, alors gouverneur de Maʿnīsa (selon d’autres récits, il fut pris au cours d’un raid par Iskender Pas̲h̲a et offert au prince Süleymān à Kefe; ou bien encore, il fut enlevé par des pirates et vendu à une veuve près d…

Ḥekīm-bas̲h̲i̊

(910 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
(Ḥakīm-bas̲h̲i̊), «chef des médecins», titre du médecin en chef du Palais ottoman, qui était en outre le chef des services sanitaires de l’État: il était à la tête des médecins, chirurgiens, oculistes, pharmaciens, etc. du Palais et avait en même temps la surveillance de tous les médecins de l’empire, musulmans ou non; c’est lui qui nommait ou révoquait tous les médecins, chirurgiens et pharmaciens, les surveillait, examinait les aspirants à ces professions, nommait et promouvait les candidats méritants. Des médecins étaient employés au Palais, à titre permanent ou tempor…

Dede Ag̲h̲ač

(205 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib
, actuellement Alexandropolis, ville de la côte égéenne de Thrace, fondée en 1871 après la construction de l’embranchement ferroviaire partant de la ligne principale de Roumélie. Débouché our les produits de l’hinterland, elle prospéra ¶ rapidement, de sorte qu’en 1300/1883 elle supplanta Dimetoḳa comme centre d’un sand̲j̲aḳ ( mutaṣarriflik) du wilāyet d’Edirne. En 1894, le sand̲j̲aḳ de Dede Ag̲h̲ač comprenait les ḳāḍāʾs de Dede Ag̲h̲ač, Enez (Inos) et Sofrulu; le ḳaḍāʾ de Dede Ag̲h̲ač comprenait trois nāḥiyes: Fered̲j̲ik, Meg̲h̲ri et Semadrek, et 41 villages. Telle éta…

Köprülü

(8,631 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib | Repp, R.C.
, a family of Ottoman viziers who rose to prominence in the latter half of the 11th/17th century and dominated Ottoman life for much of that period, bringing a halt for some time to the decline of the empire, instituting internal reforms and gaining new conquests. The name derives from the close association of the founder of the family, Köprülü Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a, with the town of Köprü [ q.v.] (then in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Amasya), which, in turn, was later called Vezīr-Köprü through its association ¶ with the family (and to distinguish it from the near-by Tas̲h̲ Köprü). That Meḥmed Pa…

Beylik

(876 words)

Author(s): Gökbilgin, M. Tayyib | R. le Tourneau
, (beglik), a term formed by joining the adjectival and relative suffix lik to bey ( beg , beg) which was an old Turkish title [see beg ]. The word bey is said to correspond to the Arabic amīr , and beylik to imāra . The term beylik thus denotes both the title and post (or function) of a Bey , and the territory (domain) under the rule of a Bey. Later, by extension, it came tomean also “state, government”, and, at the same time, a political and administrative entity sometimes possessing a certain autonomy. When the Ottoman Empire was established, ʿOt̲h̲mān Bey, the…

Köprülü

(8,184 words)

Author(s): Gokbilgin, M. Tayyib | Repp, R. C.
, famille de vizirs ottomans qui se distingua dans la seconde moitié du XIe/XVIIe siècle, domina la vie politique durant la majeure partie de cette période, arrêta pendant quelquetemps le déclin de l’empire, effectua des réformes et fit de nouvelles conquêtes. Ce nom provient des liens étroits du fondateur de la famille, KöprülüMeḥmed Pas̲h̲a, avec la ville de Köprü (alors dans le sand̲j̲ah d’Amasya) qui, par la suite, reçut en échange le nom de Vezīr-Köprü [ q.v.] à cause de ses rapports avec la famille (et pour la distinguer de sa voisine Tas̲h̲-Köprü). Cependant, Meh…