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Building trade

(1,469 words)

Author(s): Gömmel, Rainer | Braun, Helmut
1. Basics In the broader sense, the construction industry includes all the occupations and trades involved directly or indidrectly in the fabrication of structures of all kinds (above ground: dwellings of various kinds, bridges, churches, palaces, etc.; on or below ground: roads, canals, fortifications, dikes, etc.). Besides site management, the construction industry comprises the industrial trades and crafts of the craftsman working on the project, distinguished according to their occupational status (master, journeymen [1]; [6], apprentices, and unskilled labor…
Date: 2019-10-14

Building code

(757 words)

Author(s): Gömmel, Rainer | Braun, Helmut
The early modern period largely took over the institution of the building code from the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, building codes had been restricted to cities; now they were extended to many regions, for example Württemberg in the 16th century and the Bernese territory in the 17th century. With the growth of cities and their increased population density, the issuance of a building code by the governing authorities of a town was an indispensable requirement for peaceful coexistence. Buildi…
Date: 2019-10-14

Construction cycle

(723 words)

Author(s): Gömmel, Rainer | Braun, Helmut
The construction cycle is defined as the long-term cyclical variation in all activities involved in structural and civil engineering within a state or region (disregarding annual variations). These variations in construction activity during the early modern period have been little studied [5]: because the German- and Italian-speaking regions of Europe were fragmented into a multiplicity of independent territories and (free) cities, in these regions these cycles can be studied at best within these smaller entities.Analysis of construction activity as a precondition fo…
Date: 2019-10-14

Construction

(1,583 words)

Author(s): Gömmel, Rainer | Braun, Helmut
1. TerminologyWhen we speak of construction in contrast to architecture, we are thinking primarily of the sponsorship and the purpose for the erection of a building; individual buildung projects can be distinguished on the basis of who commissioned (Commissioner) and financed them. Above-ground construction (German  Hochbau) involves primarily buildings and bridges [7].  Below-ground construction (German  Tiefbau) comprises all kinds of street and road building (Road) as well as excavations such as raising ramparts and digging canals; it also inc…
Date: 2019-10-14

Industrial cycle (business cycle)

(1,528 words)

Author(s): Gömmel, Rainer
1. Definition Economists relate the concepts Konjunktur (“state of the economy”, but also “period of growth”) and “economic cycles” (whether “industrial” or “business”) to industrial development, and so to the period following English industrialization starting in the late 18th century. Economic cycles were first described by an English writer in 1837, noting the periodic ups and downs of economic activity independent of agriculture. The distinction between short-term cycles of around three years, medium-term cycles of seven-to-…
Date: 2019-10-14