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Hasdrubal

(991 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( zrbl = ‘Help is Bl’; Ἀσδρούβας/ Asdroúbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian field marshal in the 1st Punic War, 3rd cent. BC Carthaginian field marshal in the First Punic War. Together with  Bostar [1] he was defeated near Adys by the Roman invasion troops of consul M.  Atilius [I 21] Regulus in 256 BC, under  Xanthippus he probably took part in the victory near Tynes in 255 (Pol. 1,30; 32; Diod. Sic. 23,11) [1. 48, 264 and 132, 751] and from 251 he was active i.a. in Sicily with 140 elephants, until he suffer…

Pamphilidas

(62 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παμφιλίδας/ Pamphilídas) from Rhodes. A cautious admiral, and willing to seek peace, in the war against Antiochus [5] III. (Pol. 21,7,6-7; 21,10,5; cf. Liv. 37,2,9; 37,19,1). He was in action on the Carian coast in 190 BC, together with Eudamus [2], and played a leading role in the naval victory over Hannibal [4] off Side (Liv. 37,22,3; 37,24,9). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Abantidas

(64 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀβαντίδας; Abantídas). Son of Paseas and related through marriage to the family of  Aratus [2] (tyrant of Sicyon 264-252 BC); having come to power due to the murder of the tyrant Cleinias, he was killed by Deinias and the otherwise unknown dialectician Aristoteles (Plut. Arat. 2,2; 3,4; Paus. 2,8,2) [1. 394]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967.

Hampsicora

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] High-ranking Sardinian, who in 215 BC, along with his son Hostus, acted as organizer and military leader of the revolt by Sardinian tribes against the Roman rulership. H. received only insufficient Carthaginian assistance through  Hasdrubal [4] and killed himself after a devastating defeat against T.  Manlius Torquatus (Liv. 23,32,7-10; 40,3-41,6). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography Huss, 348f.

Telemnastus

(70 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Τηλέμναστος; Tēlémnastos) from Gortyn. Cretan mercenary leader, who supported Philopoemen against Nabis in 192 BC (IG IV2 244,3 f.; Pol. 33,16,1; 33,16,6). In the third Macedonian War T. was the ambassador of Perseus [2] taking his request to Antiochus [6] IV for diplomatic or military aid in the spring of 168 BC (Pol. 29,4,8-10; Liv. 44,24,1-7; cf. [1. 167 f.]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, 1974.

Bomilcar

(191 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
( Bdmlqrt?; Βορμίλκας; Bormílkas i.a.). [German version] [1] Carthaginian strategos, 310-308 BC Carthaginian strategos 310-308 BC, nephew of  Hamilcar; shared the supreme command with Hanno against  Agathocles, the first occasion that the command had been shared (Diod. Sic. 20,10; 12); executed after an attempted coup (?) (Diod. Sic. 20,44; Just. Epit. 22,7 [1. 16-18]). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian emissary to Athens, 330/300 BC Carthaginian emissary to Athens c. 330/300 BC (IG II/III2 1, 1418), probably identical with B. [1] [2. 194123]. Gü…

Mathos

(178 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μάθως/ Máthōs). Libyan, Carthaginian officer in the First Punic War in Sicily, 241-238/7 BC. With Spendius leader of the 70,000(?) insurgents in the Mercenaries' War, which M. propagandised among the Libyans and Numidians as a freedom fight against Carthage. M. besieged and conquered Hippo [5], besieged Carthage and for a long time defended himself in his operational base at Tunes until, after vicissitudinous battles, the joined forces of Hamilcar [3] and Hanno [6] were finally ab…

Moericus

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] In 212 BC, Iberian commander of the Carthaginians in Syracusae, which was being besieged by M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus. It fell by reason of M.' treachery at the section of wall he was guarding in the assault on the Achradina, allowing the Romans to also conquer the island part of the city, Orthygia (= Nassus) with the royal stronghold (Liv. 25,30). M. did have to take part in Marcellus's ovatio in gold chains, but was then rewarded with Roman citizenship and lands in Sicily (Liv. 26,21,10; 12). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography J. Seibert, Hannibal, 1993, 315…

Polycratia

(60 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πολυκράτεια/ Polykráteia). P. from Argos, first wife of Philippus [7] V, who had abducted her from her marriage to Aratus [3] (Liv. 27,31,8; 32,21,24; Plut. Aratus 49,2). They had a son Perseus [2], whose name speaks of his Argive descent (see Perseus [1]) [1. 3949]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967.

Alexamenus

(83 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀλεξαμενός; Alexamenós). From Calydon, strategos of the Aetolians 197/6 BC, organized at the bidding of  Flamininus the murder of  Brachylles (Pol. 18,43,11) [1. 56]. He was supposed to topple the regime in Sparta in 192 and murdered  Nabis, but, intent on looting, neglected the new political order and was killed (Liv. 35,35,7-35,9), so that Sparta entered the Achaean League [1. 73; 2. 77]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971 2 P. Cartledge, A. Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman…

Pyrrhias

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πυρρίας/ Pyrrhías). Aetolian, league strategos in 218/7 BC (Pol. 5,30,2-4; Liv. 27,30,1: 210/9), fought the Achaeans in the so-called Social War (Social Wars [2]) in the western Peloponnese, but was unsuccessful at Cyparissia in 217 (Pol. 5,30,2-4; 92,2-6; 94,2). In 209, in the 1st of the Macedonian Wars [A], despite material help from his co-strategos, king Attalus [4] I of Pergamum, he was defeated by Philippus [7] V at Lamia (Liv. 27,30,1-3). At the beginning of the 2nd Macedon…

Pausistratus

(177 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παυσίστρατος; Pausístratos). P. from Rhodes, admiral energetically active in the second of the Macedonian Wars and in the Syrian War on the side of Rome. His and allied land troops fought the Macedonian general Deinocrates in Caria in 197 BC (Liv. 33,18,1-21). In 191/190 he was active off the Ionian coast, where in 190 his fleet suffered a ruinous defeat at Panormus in Samia at the hands of Polyxenidas and he was killed himself (Liv. 36,45,5f.; 37,9,5; 37,10,2-11,11; 37,12,8; App. Syr. 23,112-24,120: Pausímachos) [1. 153f.; 2. 196]. A strategem of P.'s during …

Philopoemen

(462 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλοποίμην/ Philopoímēn). Son of Craugis from Megale Polis, 253-182 BC, prominent Achaean statesman, instigator of a 'limited resistance' against Rome [1. 112-127]; idealized by Polybius [2] and celebrated into the Roman Imperial Period as the 'last of the Greeks' and last champion of liberty (Paus. 8,52,6; Plut. Philopoemen 1,7), more recently criticized for his 'doctrinaire patriotism' [2. 227; 3. 51]. P.'s lofty reputation depended on his numerous military successes achieved as hípparchos and stratēgós of the Achaean League (209 and from 208/7 on;…

Lattabus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λάτταβος; Láttabos). Aetolian who jointly with Nicostratus (and Dorimachus) attacked the Boeotians in 220 BC at their confederate festival (Pol. 9,34,11; cf. 4,3,5), probably identical with the epigraphically attested Naupactian (?) L., son of Strombichus and brother of a Nicostratus; not identical with the stratēgós Lattamus, son of Bucatieus (s. Syll.3 539,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Echedemus

(72 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἐχέδημος; Echédēmos). Prominent Athenian from Cydathenaeum [1. 189-193], tried in vain in 190 BC to mediate between the Aetolians and the Romans, i.a. with P. Cornelius Scipio (Pol. 21,4-5; Liv. 37,6; 7) [2. 277-288], and in 185/4 contributed decisively to the reorganization of the Delphian  amphictyony [3. 213]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 C. Habicht, Studien zur Gesch. Athens in hell. Zeit, 1982 2 P. Pantos, E., the Second Attic Phoibos, in: Hesperia 58, 1989 3 Habicht.

Amynander

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀμύνανδρος; Amýnandros, also Ἀμυνᾶς; Amynâs). King of  Athamania since 220(?) or c. 205 BC (Pol. 4,16,9; Syll.3 565; Welles 35; Moretti II 94), usually allied with the Aetolians, he received  Zacynthus (Liv. 36,31,11-12) [1. 405] from Philip V for his neutrality in 207/6; in the second Macedonian War on the Roman side (Pol. 16,27,4; 18,1,3; 36,3; 47,13;) [1. 420-425; 2. 1-8]; in 198/8  Flamininus sent him as envoy to Rome (18,10,7) [3. 253 f.]. In 192/1 allied with  Antiochus, as he hoped to see…

Volux

(68 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Son of the Moorish king Bocchus [1]. In 106 BC in the Romans' war with his brother-in-law Iugurtha, he took L.Cornelius [I 90] Sulla to Bocchus, who thereby indicated his change of sides. The dramatic description of this risky mission in Sallustius [II 3] (Sall. Iug. 101,5; 105-107), which shows V. as an unreliable cowardly 'barbarian', can probably be traced to Sulla's memoirs. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Pleuratus

(299 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πλευράτος/ Pleurátos). [German version] [1] Illyrian king c. 200 BC Illyrian king, son of Scerdilaedas and from 212 (?) BC his co-regent [1. 256]; nephew of Agron [3]. He ensured his autocracy over the southern Illyrian tribes from 206 onwards by means of an alliance with Rome in the first (Pol. 10,41,4; Liv. 26,24,9; 27,30,13; 28,5,7; 29,12,14) [2. 298-302] and the second of the Macedonian Wars (Pol. 21,11,7; 21,21,3; Liv. 31,28,1f) [2. 302-306], for which in 196 he received the cities of Lychnis (moder…

Pacatus

(233 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Latinus P. Drepanius, a rhetor from the region around Bordeaux, lived in the 4th/5th cents. AD and in 390 attained the proconsulship of Africa. He was a friend of  Ausonius and Symmachus, presumably also of  Paulinus [5] of Nola. In 389 P. held a panegyric on the emperor  Theodosius I. In this there was an especially striking accumulation of exempla from the Roman tradition with which P. probably wanted to do justice to the dignity of the res publica [8. 57-61]: P. sees the Roman concept of humanitas realised in the person of Theodosius. Despite …

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…
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