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Black lung

(1,345 words)

Author(s): Gadebusch-Bondio, Mariacarla
1. Pulmonary disease in the early modern period Black lung (pneumoconiosis, “miner’s lung”) is a chronic disease of the respiratory passages caused by continuous inhalation of particular types of dust. Ancient authors like the Greek lexicographer Pollux and the Roman scholar Pliny the Elder were already aware that miners and metalworkers were often affected by respiratory diseases (which were then called ásthma or  phthisía in Greek). But it was only in the context of the 16th-century mining boom that medical science began to examine the situation (see al…
Date: 2019-10-14

Environmental toxins

(3,019 words)

Author(s): Weitensfelder, Hubert | Gadebusch-Bondio, Mariacarla
1. Concept Environmental toxins and their transformation products change the nature of soil, water, air, and climate in such a way that danger may arise, immediately or at a later date, for humans, plants, animals, or microorganisms. Since industrialization, the concept has primarily applied to those harmful substances that are used, processed, or produced in industry, industrial trades and crafts, crafts, and agriculture.Hubert Weitensfelder 2. Mining and smelting Early modern toxins included several metals and their compounds (Arsenic; Lead; Mercury; Sul…
Date: 2019-10-14


(1,846 words)

Author(s): Gadebusch-Bondio, Mariacarla
1. Origin of the term The term dietetics (Latin  regimen, French  régime, German  Diathetik) comes from the Greek  díaita (“way of life”) and means “the science of healthy  living”. Ancient Hippocratic  medicine considered preservation of health one of its primary roles. Alongside medicinal treatment and surgery, dietetics constituted one of the three forms of medicine medical intervention. Ancient philosophy established ethics and aesthetics as the central material (subject matter) for dietetics, divided into sp…
Date: 2019-10-14