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Meddix

(230 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Oscan medìss). Oscan ( Osci) and Volscian ( Volsci) term for an official (Fest. 123), which is etymologically equivalent to the Latin iudex. If the term refers to the supreme magistrate of a touta, an ‘(entire) people’, occasionally (for example, among the Campanians, Liv. 24,19,2) tuticus is added (analogous to magistratus populi or publicus). In Ennius [1] (Enn. Ann. 298) there is an alter meddix in addition to the summus meddix (= m. tuticus), possibly the meddix of a pagus as well. There also seem to have been other meddices whose particular responsibilities were…

Tabula Bantina

(273 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Fragments of a bronze tablet, inscribed on both sides, from Bantia (at modern Venosa) in Lucania. The front, written first, contains the sanctio of a Roman statute. Since present and future magistrates are bound in it by oath to refrain from any undertaking against the law, it is often seen as part of a l ex Appuleia ( agraria or maiestatis; Ap(p)uleius [I 11]) of 103 or 100 BC; in any case, it is from the end of the 2nd cent. BC. Listed on the back, used later, are several sections of the municipal law of Bantia (or a draft of it), in the…

Lex Malacitana

(115 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Municipal law from the time of Domitian (end of the 1st cent. AD) for the Latin municipium Flavium Malacitanum, modern Málaga in southern Spain, of which a bronze tablet was found in 1861 with chs. 51-69 together with the lex Salpensana (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid). The text of chs. 59-69 is identical, with several differences, to that of the corresponding chs. in the lex Irnitana ; this would probably also apply to the rest of the law. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography CIL II 1964 ILS 6089 H. Freis, Histor. Inschr. zur röm. Kaiserzeit, 1…

Senatus consultum Hosidianum

(270 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Senatorial decision, named after the AD 47 suffect consul, Cn. Hosidius [4] Geta [1. 609-612]. It provided for public regulation of private construction work (Building law B.). The bronze tablet with the text of the SC was excavated at Herculaneum around 1600 and is now lost. Like the somewhat later SC Volusianum (AD 56), which was recorded on the same tablet, the SC Hosidianum penalized the purchase of domus and villae for the purpose of demolition with subsequent resale at a higher price of the materials and land, to stop the speculation in urban…

Lex Irnitana

(446 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Only Latin city law extant in large sections, for a Latin municipium from the time of Domitian (end 1st cent. AD); found during illegal excavations in El Saucejo in the south of the modern province of Seville in southern Spain in 1981, and purchased by the authorities for the National Museum of Archaeology in Seville (initial publication: [2], with English translation; authoritative text: [4]). Of the original ten bronze tablets (H 58 cm, B 91 cm), six (III, V, VII-X) are almost completely extant, if also partially in pieces. We thus possess c. 70% of the entire text, ta…

Tabulae Caeritum

(280 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] In the TC Roman censors registered citizens from whom they had withdrawn the active or passive right to vote, by means of a nota censoria and/or by transfer into another tribus ( tribu movere). The term TC is explained from the original inclusion in this list of those citizens of the Etruscan city of Caere who were liable for military service. Presumably Caere gave its name to the list because in c. 390 BC it is supposed to have been the first community to receive civitas sine suffragio: Caere had provided help to Rome during the Gaulish attack in c. 390 BC and had in thanks b…

Socii (Roman confederation)

(849 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Definition The term "Roman confederation" or "Italic Federation" (Beloch) refers to the Roman manner of governing Italy during the Republic. The Romans themselves apparently had no name for this structure, in documents one encounters the paraphrase socii nominisque (or nominisve) Latini quibus ex formula milites in terra Italia imperare solent [1]. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) [German version] B. Participants Geographically, the confederation comprised the Apennine peninsula without the islands. The Ligurian and Gallic tribes of Upper Ita…

Foedus

(391 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Ceremonial treaty of peace and friendship between Rome and another state which is placed under the protection of the gods. By contrast to a truce ( indutiae) the foedus was drawn up for the long term ( pia et aeterna pax). The result of the foedus was a   societas or an   amicitia , Rome's partners were   foederati ,   socii or amici (the terms are not strictly differentiated). Originally the foedera were probably signed by the   fetiales in the form of a sponsio (Liv. 1,24); later their role was confined to supervising the religious formalities. The foedus was usually signed by…

Vicesima

(488 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (derived from Lat. viginti, 'twenty'; literally, 'the twentieth part'). In Rome, V. was the term referring to five-per-cent taxes [IV]; esp. important were the V . manumissionum or libertatis (manumission tax) and the V. hereditatium (inheritance tax). According to the annalistic tradition (Liv. 7,16,7; on this [3]), the V. manumissionum or libertatis was already decided upon in 357 BC by the Roman army through a vote according to tribus near Sutrium and was afterwards approved by the Senate. Probably from the beginning, it was…

Latin League

(159 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A federation of towns ( populi) in Latium Vetus that was organized around the sanctuary of Jupiter Latiaris on mons Albanus , but in part also around that of Diana of Aricia. The rights of members were regulated in the foedus Cassianum . The federation came increasingly under Roman control, first during the time of the Tarquinian kings and then in the 4th cent. BC. In 338 the majority of its members was annexed and the remainder became the prisci Latini. Latini, Latium (with map) Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome, 1995, 293ff. H. Gals…

Res publica

(1,027 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (literally: 'public matter', in contrast to res privata, 'private matter') is the sum of the possessions, rights and interests of the Roman state, where the term 'state' is understood not as an abstract concept separable from its citizenry, but as the concrete manifestation of the generality of its citizens: res publica est res populi (Cic. Rep. 1,25,39; ' res publica is the affair of the people'; Populus). Accordingly, res publica is not identifiable with the modern concepts of 'state' or 'constitution'; in its original meaning it denotes differen…

SPQR

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Stands for s(enatus) p(opulus)q(ue) R(omanus) and was the usual title of the Roman state as embodied in its two governing bodies, the 'Senate and People of Rome' (i.e. not, as in Greece, the people alone, e.g. hoi Athēnaîoi), from the 1st cent. BC. Before this, the populus was in first place (first evidence in the decree of Aemilius [I 32] Paullus for Lascuta, early 2nd cent. BC: ILS 15; cf. Pol. 21,10,8). From the time of Augustus, SPQR appears on inscriptions as the author of consecrations (e.g. of buildings and monuments), later also as the recipient of dedications. …

Tabula Hebana

(219 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The five bronze fragments, belonging together, of the TH (from Heba in Etruria) can - just like the Tabula Siarensis found in Siarum (in the province of Seville) in 1980 and other fragments from Todi and Rome - be related to a dossier containing a senatus consultum and a law, based on it, of the consuls of AD 20 ( lex Valeria Aurelia) with decrees for the honouring of Germanicus [2], who had died in AD 19. The dossier provides insight into the functioning of the comitia centuriata during the Imperial period and into the mobilisation of public loyalty for the imperi…

Aesculetum

(52 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Grove of oaks ( aesculus) in Rome, to whose branches the coronae civicae were bound. It lay in the western Campus Martius, opposite the island in the Tiber, by the Lungotevere Cenci. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography S. Panciera, Ancora tra epigrafia e topografia, in: L'Urbs. Espace Urbain et Histoire, 1987, 62-73.

Municipal law

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the field of  legal texts in cuneiform, the political structure of the Mesopotamian confederation, that at times comprised small territorial states and at times large states stretching over the whole of southern Mesopotamia, created regional peculiarities that are demonstrated above all in the form of documents as well as in substantive law. The essential parameters of the legal system were defined by the structure of the society (Social structure), economy and f…

Ingenuus

(400 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] [1] Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than Gallienus in 260 AD Governor of Pannonia and Moesia, proclaimed emperor rather than  Gallienus in AD 260 by the Moesian legions after  Valerianus was captured by the Persians and the Sarmatians threatened to invade (S HA Tyr. Trig. 9,1; Aur. Vict. Caes. 33,2; Zon. 12,24, p. 143 D). Gallienus' cavalry leader  Aureolus defeated him at Mursa near Sirmium. I. lost his life while fleeing (Zon. loc. cit..; Aur. Vict. Caes. 32,2; Eutr. 9,8,1; Oros. 7,22,10; Chron. min. 1, 521,45 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Boch…

Inscriptions

(4,367 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Hallof, Klaus (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General In the more restricted sense, inscriptions are texts - usually of monumental character - that, because of their function, are intended to last, as well as texts that are written on other-than-usual writing materials, e.g. clay tablets,  papyrus,  ostraka, etc. Inscriptions are closely tied to other texts by commonalities of writing, form and content. Therefore, despite specific research efforts, ancient oriental epigraphy has not developed as an independent…

Ordo

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
in Latin referred both to an order (e.g. the marching order or that of a legal process) as well as to groups or corporations, into which several or many persons were organized (also in the plural ordines), e.g. the Roman equites ( ordo equester). [German version] I. Procedural law In a procedural context the term ordo is traditionally used in the composition of the ' ordo iudiciorum' (Cod. Iust. 7,45,4). It signified the proper types of legal procedure (cf. still today: 'proper' jurisdiction) both of the formulary procedure ( formula ) as well as of the actions at law proceedings ( legis actio

Taxes

(6,422 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Römer, Malte (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) | Pack, Edgar (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia Income needed to finance tasks of state and general social functions (administration, the military, irrigation, prestige buildings, the court, cults, etc.) did not come from an all-embracing system of taxation levied on individuals, transactions or property, but on a general duty of service and labour on the part of subjects. Under the oikos economy (3rd millennium BC), the palace’s income came predominantly from the domestic operation of the institutional economies of temple and palace. In the tribute-based economy da…
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