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al-Muʿizz li-Dīn Allāh

(1,759 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
, Abū Tamīm Maʿadd b. Ismāʿīl al-Manṣūr, fourth Fāṭimid caliph, was born at Mahdīya on 11th Ramaḍān 319 (28th Sept. 931), proclaimed heir-apparent in (952—953), and succeeded to the throne in S̲h̲awwāl of the same year (March 953). His first object was to restore the Fāṭimid power, which had been reestablished in Ifrīḳiya by his father, over the remaining provinces of the Mag̲h̲rib. In 342 he led in person an army of Kitāma into the Awrās mountains and not only reduced the turbulent tribes of that region for the …

al-Mustaʿlī Bi ’llāh

(641 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Aḥmad b. al-Mustanṣir, ninth Fāṭimid Caliph, born 20th Muḥarram, 467 [Sept. 16, 1074] (so in all the best sources and in al-Mustanṣir’s letter to Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Ṣulaihī, quoted in Idrīs, vii. 152), the youngest son of his father. At this time it was generally assumed in the Ismāʿīlī organization that the eldest son, Nizār (born 437), would, in accordance with custom, succeed his father in the imāmate, although no formal investiture with the wilāyat al-ʿahd appears to have been made. The influence of the all-powerful wazīr Badr al-Ḏj̲amālī, however, and of …

Ruzzīk b. Ṭalāʾiʿ

(290 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
al-Malik al-ʿĀdil, Badr al-Dīn Anū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʾ Mad̲j̲d al-Islām, Fāṭimid wazīr, of Armenian origin, succeeded his father Ṭalāʾiʿ [q. v.] after the latter’s assassination on 20th Ramaḍān 556 (Sept. 12, 1161), and remained in office for fifteen months. The only event of importance during this period was a Berber invasion in 557 (1162) under Ḥusain b. Nizār [see nizār b. al-mustanṣir], who was captured and put to death. Ruzzīk inherited the literary tastes of his father and is said to have governed well, but when, in the same year, he attempted to remove h…


(13,272 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
(ʿIlm al-Taʾrīk̲h̲), Historiography, as a term of literature, embraces both annalistic and biography (but not as a rule literary history). The development of Arabic and Persian historiography is summarized below in four sections: A. From the origins to the third century of the Hid̲j̲ra; B. From the third to the sixth centuries; C. From the end of the sixth to the beginning of the tenth century; D. From the tenth to the thirteenth centuries. For the historical literature of the Ottoman Turks see the article turks (vol. iv. 947 sqq.), and for that written in Malay the article malays (vol. iii.…


(252 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
, the name of a family of scholars and jurists established at Damascus in the xth—xith (xvith—xviith) centuries, the descendants of Muḥibb al-Dīn Abu ’l-Faḍl Muḥammad b. Abū Bakr, originally of Ḥamā (949—1016 = 1542—1608). The most famous member of the family was his great-grandson, Muḥammad Amīn b. Faḍl Allāh, born at Damascus in 1061 (1651). After completing his studies in Constantinople, he returned to Damascus in 1092 (1681) and engaged in teaching and literary work there until his death in 1111 (1699), except for a short interval during which he served as nāʾib to the ḳāḍī of Mekka…

Nizār b. al-Mustanṣir

(259 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
, Fāṭimid claimant, born 10th Rabīʿ I 437 (Sept. 26, 1045). On the death of his father, having been displaced by his youngest brother al-Mustaʿlī [q. v.], Nizār fled to Alexandria, took the title of al-Muṣṭafā li-Dīn Allāh, and rose in revolt early in 488(1095) with the assistance of the governor, Naṣr al-Dawla Aftakīn, who was jealous of al-Afḍal, and the population of the city. He was at first successful in driving back al-Afḍal and advanced as far as the outskirts of Cairo, supported by Arab auxi…

al-Mustanṣir Bi ’llāh

(3,446 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R. and Kraus, P.
, Abū Tamīm Maʿadd b. ʿAlī al-Ẓāhir, eighth Fāṭimid Caliph, born 16th Ḏj̲umādā II, 420 (July 2, 1029) (According to Idrīs, on 16th Ramaḍān = Sept. 29), succeeded his father al-Ẓāhir [q. v.] 15th S̲h̲aʿbān 427 (June 13, 1036), and died 18th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 487 (Jan. 10, 1094), after the longest recorded reign of any Muslim ruler and one which, besides being marked by the most violent fluctuations of fortune, was of critical importance in the history of the Fāṭimid Ismāʿīlī movement. Internal history. During the childhood of ¶ al-Mustanṣir the authority remained at first in the s…

Muḥammad b. Saʿūd

(246 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
(properly Suʿūd) b. Muḥammad of the Muḳrin clan of ʿAnaza, the founder of the Wahhābī dynasty of the Āl-Saʿūd in Nad̲j̲d [see the article ibn saʿūd], succeeded his father as amīr of Darʿīya in 1137 (1724) or 1140 (1727). His association with the reformer Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb [cf. wahhābīya] began in 1157 (1744). Thereafter until his death (end of Rabīʿ I, 1179 = Sept. 1765) the history of his reign consists of an unceasing and on the whole indecisive struggle against the neighbouring settlements and tribes and his former suzerains, the B…

Muḥammad b. Abi ’l-Sād̲j̲

(467 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
Abū ʿUbaid Allāh, son of Abu ’l-Sād̲j̲ Dīwdād, an Eastern Iranian (not Turkish) noble from Us̲h̲rūsana in Mā-warāʾ al-Nahr (see Barthold, Turkestan, G. M.S., p. 169). For his early career see the article sād̲j̲ids. After his rupture with Ḵh̲umārawaih he returned to Bag̲h̲dād (276 = 889) and appears to have remained there (cf. Ṭabarī, iii. 2122) until his appointment as governor of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān in 279 (892). Though on his arrival he had entertained friendly relations with the Bagratid king of Armenia, Sembat (ace. 891), afte…


(505 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H. A. R.
, the name of a family of saiyids and scholars established at Damascus in the xith—xiith (xviith—xviiith) centuries. 1. The founder of the family, Murād b. ʿAlī al-Ḥusainī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, born 1050 (1640), was the son of the naḳīb al-as̲h̲rāf of Samarḳand. He travelled in his youth to India, where he was initiated into the Naḳs̲h̲bandī ṭarīḳa by S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad Maʿṣūm al-Fārūḳī, and after extensive journeys through Persia, the Arab lands and Egypt settled in Damascus about 1081 (1670). He subsequently made several visits to Mekka and Constantinopl…

Abū Firās

(638 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
al-Ḥamdānī , poetic cognomen of al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Abi ’l-ʿAlāʾ Saʿīd b. Ḥamdān al-Tag̲h̲libī , Arab poet, born in 320/932, probably in ʿIrāḳ. Saʿīd, himself a poet, was killed by his nephew Nāṣir al-Dawla Ḥasan on attempting to occupy Mawṣil in 323/935, The mother of Abū Firās, a Greek umm walad, moved with her son to Aleppo after its occupation by the poet’s cousin Sayf al-Dawla in 333/944, and there he was trained under the eye of Sayf al-Dawla, who also married his sister. In 336/947-8 he was appointed to the governorship of Manbid̲j̲ (and lat…


(1,022 words)

Author(s): Streck, M. | Gibb, H.A.R.
, Arabicised form of antiocheia, town in northern Syria, situated on the Orontes (ʿĀṣī) river, 14 m. from the Mediterranean coast. Founded about 300 B.C. by Seleucus I, and occupied by Pompey in 64 B.C., it became the largest and most important Roman city in Asia and capital of the Asian provinces of the Roman empire. Its gradual decay dates from the foundation of the Sāsānid empire, which diminished its political and economic influence in the Tigris-Euphrates basin and made it the object of repeate…


(313 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, the traditional name for the site of a battle fought in Ḏj̲umādā I or II, 13/July-August 634, between the Muslim Arab invaders and the Greek defenders of Palestine. Although located by the literary sources between Ramla and Bayt Ḏj̲ibrīn, no place of this name is attested by the geographers. On topographical grounds, the site of the battle was located by Miednikoff on the Wādī al-Ṣamt in the vicinity of the two villages of al-Ḏj̲annāba (G̲h̲arbiyya and S̲h̲arḳiyya), 34° 5…

Āḳ Sunḳur

(158 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, “White Falcon”, the name of many Turkish officers, of whom the following are the most important: 1. āḳ sunḳur b. ʿabd allāh ḳasīm al-dawla , known as al-ḥād̲j̲ib , mamlūk of Malik-s̲h̲āh [ q.v.], who appointed him to the government of Aleppo in 480/1087. He at first supported the efforts of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ prince Tutus̲h̲ [ q.v.] to establish himself in Syria, but after Malik-s̲h̲āh’s death he, with the other governors in northern Syria and the Ḏj̲azīra, declared for Barkiyāruḳ, and was defeated and executed by Tutus̲h̲ near Aleppo in Ḏj̲umādā I, 487/May 1094. He was the father of Zankī [ q.v.],…

Abu ’l-Fidā

(841 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, Ismāʿīl b. ( al-Afḍal ) ʿAlī b. ( al-Muẓaffar ) Maḥmūd b. ( al-Manṣūr ) Muḥammad b. Taḳī al-Dīn ʿUmar b. S̲h̲āhans̲h̲āh b. Ayyūb , al-Malik al-Muʾayyad ʿImād al-Dīn , Syrian prince, historian, and geographer, of the family of the Ayyūbids [ q.v.], born in Damascus, Ḏj̲um. i, 672/Nov. 1273. At the age of 12, in the company of his father and his cousin al-Muẓaffar Maḥmūd II, prince of Ḥamāh, he was present at the siege and capture of Marḳab (Margat) (684/1285). He took part also in the later campaigns against the Crusaders. On the suppre…


(763 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, family of Egyptian scholars of Palestinian origin, whose ancestor Ṣāliḥ settled at Bulḳīna in al-G̲h̲arbiyya. (1) ʿumar b. raslān b. naṣīr b. ṣāliḥ , sirād̲j̲ al-dīn abū ḥafṣ al-kinānī , born 12 S̲h̲aʿbān 724/4 August 1324, died 10 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 805/1 June 1403. He studied at Cairo under the most farnous scholars of the day, including Ibn ʿAḳīl [ q.v.], whose daughter he married, and served as nāʾib during Ibn ʿAḳīl’s brief tenure as Grand Ḳāḍī in 759/1358. Appointed Muftī in the Dar al-ʿAdl in 765/1363, he became the most celebrated jurist of his age (cf. Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn, Muḳaddima

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. K̲h̲ālid

(214 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
b. al-Walīd al-mak̲h̲zūmī , the only surviving son of the famous Arab general. At the age of eighteen he commanded a squadron at the battle of the Yarmūk. Muʿāwiya subsequently appointed him governor of Ḥimṣ and he commanded several of the later Syrian expeditions ¶ into Anatolia. During the civil war, after successfully opposing an ʿIrāḳī expedition into the Ḏj̲azīra. he joined Muʿāwiya at Ṣiffīn and was made standard-bearer. According to the received tradition, Muʿāwiya, fearing that ʿAbd al-Raḥmān might be a rival of Yazīd for the succ…


(1,109 words)

Author(s): Gibb, H.A.R.
, title of two Ayyūbid princes: 1. al-Malik al-ʿĀdil Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Ayyūb , with the honorific title of Sayf al-Dīn ("Sword of the Faith", called by the Crusaders Saphadin ), the brother, assistant, and spiritual heir of Saladin (Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn, [ q.v.]). He was born in Muḥarram 540/June-July 1145, or according to other accounts in 538/1143-4, in Damascus or in Baalbek, thus being six or eight years younger than his celebrated brother. Al-ʿĀdil accompanied Saladin to Egypt in the third and final expedition of S̲h̲īrkūh (564/1169). His first important appointment w…
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