[German version] The exemption of individual legal persons from the obligations to military service, public service and consent, Lat.
immunitas (... vacationem militiae munerisque ... immunitatem appellari: Dig. 50,16,18; Greek
atéleia, aneisphoría, aleitourgeisía: Dig. 27,1,6,2), can be based on legal, generally formulated non-inclusion of a circle to which they belong, or on a temporary or long-term personal dispensation (Dig. 50,6:
de iure immunitatis; 50,5:
de vacatione et excusatione munerum). Depending on the duties in question, the
immunitas personae exempted from burdens which placed physical or intellectual demands on individuals, the
immunitas patrimonii from duties imposed on fortunes and, thus, their respective owners. Despite these categories, the rules of exemption are very different in their details. Legal reasons for exemptions could include age, gender, class (e.g. senators, knights; in Christian times also priests and monks), membership o…