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Druna

(16 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern Drôme, tributary of the Rhône (Auson. Mos. 479). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Arrabona

(98 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Military base and road junction on the upper Pannonian   limes , at the mouth of the Ar(r)abo (Ptol. 2,11,5; 14,1; 15,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3; Marcianos 2,36) into the Danube (It. Ant. 267,10; Not. Dign. occ. 34,27; Geogr. Rav. 4,19), modern Györ, German name Raab. From the middle of the 1st cent. AD alae fort (on the Káptalan hill), from the 2nd cent. garrison of the   ala I Ulpia Contariorum Milliaria .   Vicus to the south and east, burial and cremation graves. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Ucenni

(36 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpine people in the Romanche valley at L'Oisans (Str. 4,1,11; 4,6,5: Ἰκόνιοι/ Ikónioi), subjugated by Augustus  (Plin. HN. 3,137). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 318.

Segovii

(41 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Tribe in the Alpes Cottiae, mentioned on the Augustus Arch in Segusio (CIL V 7231; [1. 77]). Not located, presumably at Montgenèvre in the French Alps. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography 1 J. Prieur, La province romaine des Alpes Cottiennes, 1968, 77.

Taurisci

(287 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Ταυρίσκοι/ Taurískoi). Celts in the area of the Alpes and the Ister [1] (Danube), first mentioned at the southern edge of the western Alpes, where they appeared in 225 BC as part of the Celtic war alliance against Rome (Pol. 2,15,8; 28,4; 30,6); the Taurini were also counted among them (Pol. 3,60,8). Cato Orig. 2,6 includes the Lepontii and the Salassi among the T. In the late 1st cent. BC, Timagenes [1] (FGrH 88 F 2) mentions that the tribal hero, a Gaulish tyrant, was annihilate…

Flavia Solva

(82 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town in Noricum, modern Wagna near Leibnitz. Municipium (Plin. HN 3,146) from the time of Vespanian; destroyed by the invasion of Marcomanni around AD 170, built up again after that. Orthogonal street system with insulae, burial area (from Late Antiquity, on the Frauenberg). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography E. Hudeczek, F.S., in: G. Christian (ed.), Leibnitz, 1988, 21-54 M. Hainzmann, E. Pochmarski, Die römerzeitlichen Inschr. und Reliefs von Schloß Seggau bei Leibnitz, 1994.

Alpes Maritimae

(129 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] After Roman subjugation of Ligurian tribes in the summer of 14 BC (Cass. Dio 54. 24. 3), the Alpes Maritimae stood under the command of a knightly praefectus civitatium (Str. 4,6,3). In AD 63 the conferment of the   ius Latii (Plin. HN 3,135; Tac. Ann. 15,32), administration by a procurator, with the title praeses since the 3rd cent. AD. A suburb was  Cemenelum (today Cimiez). Under Diocletian the province was enlarged by parts of the Narbonensis and  Alpes Cottiae and allocated to the praefectura Galliarum ( dioecesis Viennensis).  Eburodunum became the new capital. Graßl…

Druentia

(77 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern river Durance, rises in the  Alpes Cottiae and flows into the Rhône (Str. 4,1,3; 11; Ptol. 2,10,4). It was along this torrential river (Str. 4,6,5; Plin. HN 3,33; Auson. Mos. 479) that Hannibal marched with his army (Liv. 21,32,8; 32,6; Sil. Pun. 3,468; Amm. Marc. 15,10,11). Nautae Druentici are mentioned in inscriptions (CIL XII 731; 982). In late antiquity the region's security was maintained by fortresses (Cassiod. Var. 3,41,2). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Victumulae

(115 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Ἰκτούμουλαι/ Iktoúmoulai). Settlement of Celtic Insubres in the territory of Vercellae [1]. Expanded, fortified and settled with inhabitants of the surrounding area by the Romans as a trade centre in the war with the Galli (225-222 BC) (Liv. 21,57,9 f.). In 218 BC Hannibal [4] pitched camp near V. (Liv. 21,45,3) before conquering the town (Liv. 21,57,9 ff.). In the process the men of the settlement are said to have burned themselves in their houses or killed themselves and their families (Diod. 25,17). A lex censoria prohibited the tenants of nearby rich goldmi…

Seduni

(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe on the upper Rhône in the modern Swiss canton of Valais (Liv. 21,38,9), who fought against Caesar (Caes. Gall. 3,1,1 ff.; 3,7,1) and were subjected by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137); Their Late Antiquity capital Sedunum (modern Sion) was named after them. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 309-311.

Mons Poeninus

(251 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Mountain (Ptol. 2,12,1; 3,1,1; 20) and pass (2,469 m) on the route from Italy into Gaul and Rhaetia, the modern Great St. Bernhard. Used from the Neolithic period, traffic increasing from the La Tène period, it served the Celts on their invasion of Italy (Liv. 5,35,2). Liv. 21,38,6ff. was already dismissing speculation concerning the expeditionary route of  Hannibal (with etymological place-name interpretation based on the ethnic). Under Augustus, the MP was occupied by the Romans…

Savincates

(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Alpes Cottiae, mentioned on the Augustus Arch in Segusio (CIL V 7231) and at the Mausoleum of Escoyères en Queyras (CIL XII 80). It can therefore presumably be located in the region to the southeast of  Briançon. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 175-177, 356 f.

Valcum

(70 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: ( Volgum, modern Fenékpuszta). Station on the road from Sopianis to Savaria at the western end of Lacus Pelso (modern Lake Balaton; It. Ant. 233,3). Late Antiquity fortress with numerous excavated buildings, including the Palatium, a warehouse and a basilica. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography L. Barkóczi, s. v. V., PE 952 E. Toth, Zur Urbanisierung Pannoniens, in: Folia Archaeologica 37, 1986, 163-181.

Alpes Cottiae

(129 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] After the entry of the regnum into the Roman empire, administration by means of  Cottius as praefectus civitatium (CIL V 7231), after the death of Cottius II in AD 63, transformation of the Alpes Cottiae (AC) into a procuratorial province (Suet. Nero 1), since the 3rd cent. AD under a praeses; main town  Segusio; other centres were  Eburodunum and Brigantio (today Briançon). Under Diocletian the western part came to the  Alpes Maritimae, the eastern part was allocated under a praeses to the dioecesis Italia (Amm. Marc. 15,10,6). Starting in the 6th cent. AD, Lig…

Marginalized groups

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A. Definition Since the 1920s sociologists (Chicago School) have studied the phenomenon of marginalized groups (MG). In the German-speaking countries scholars have used the term ( Randgruppen) since the 60s. MG are defined as minorities ‘who are seen by the majority as outside of the social norm, and who therefore have the status of social outsiders ... groups who are socially declassed and/or are socially despised. A significant percentage of them live in poverty’ [3. 666]. Population groups whose values,…

Vennones

(105 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic people in the area around Comum (Str. 4,6,6: Οὐέννωνες/ Ouénnōnes), subjugated by the Roman proconsul P. Silius [II 7] in 16 BC (Cass. Dio 54,20,1: Οὐέννιοι/ Ouénnioi), probably identical with the Vennonetes mentioned by Plin. HN 3,136 in an inscription on the Tropaeum Alpium (CIL V 7817; Tropaea Augusti ). The V. mentioned in Str. 4,6,8 as a subtribe of the Vindelici should probably be distinguished from the latter, and similarly the Vennonenses located by Plin. HN 3,135 on the upper reaches of the Rhenus [2]; these in turn are presumably the Οὐέννονες ( Ou énnones…

Veamini(i)

(41 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Ligurian tribe in the  Alpes Maritimae, subjugated by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137;  cf. the inscription on the Augustus Arch in Segusio: CIL V 7231). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruch, Les peuples préromaines du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 360 f.

Vintium

(55 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Οὐίντιον). Municipium in the Alpes Maritimae in the territory of the Ligurian Nerusii (Ptol. 3,1,41; Notitia Galliarum 17,8), modern Vence to the west of Nice; a bishopric since the 5th century  (Greg. Tur. Franc. 9,24). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 368 f.  Rivet, 342.

Lacus Pelso

(302 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (also L. Pelsois, L. Pelsodis). Lake in Pannonia (today 591 km2, 106 m above sea level, average depth 3 m), important as a shipping route with many overland connections, modern Balaton in western Hungary. Pliny (HN 3,146) has Lacus Pelso (LP) border on the territory of the Norici ( Noricum) and the deserta Boiorum ( Boiohaemum), which commonly led to the assumption that Lake Neusiedel was also called LP [1. 26f.; 2; 3. 61]. While the area west of LP is supposed to have been dependent on the Norici in the early 1st cent. AD [4. 15f.]…

Iugum Cremonis

(36 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern Mont Cramont on the route of the Little St Bernard Pass, over which, according to Coelius Antipater (HRR fr. 14 = Liv. 21,38,7), Hannibal crossed the Alps. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
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