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Eporedia

(117 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Batavian Revolt Mod. Ivrea, Celtic settlement at the confluence of the Dora and the Padus. the Roman citizen colony was founded in 100 BC at the order of the Sibylline oracle (Plin. HN 3,123) within the territory of the  Salassi (Ptol. 3,1,30; falsely Vell. Pat. 1,15,5 in Bagiennis). According to Str. 4,6,7, there was a slave market in E. for the subjugated Alpine tribes, and Plin. HN 21,43 mentions E. for its perfume production. In late antiquity, it becam…

Octodurus

(148 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Capital of the Veragri on the route through the Great Saint Bernard pass from Italy to Gaul, modern Martigny. In 57 BC the battle between the Twelfth Legion under Sulpicius Galba and the Gauls took place there (Caes. B Gall. 3,1,4); Roman occupation in c. 15 BC. Under Claudius in c. AD 47, O. was refounded as Forum Claudii Augusti or Vallensium with Latin rights (Plin. HN 3,135). In the subsequent period it grew into a reloading point for Alpine traffic, laid out like an insula, with forum (with basilica), baths, nymphaeum, amphitheatre, Gallo-Roman peripteral tem…

Alpes Graiae

(80 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpes Graiae (AG) was connected with the legendary march through the Alps by Heracles. Procuratorial province at the Little St. Bernhard (likely since Claudius), often administered with the Alpes Poeninae; capital is Axima (today Aime). From the 2nd until the end of the 3rd cent. AD (Diocletian), AG is replaced by the name Alpes Atrectianae; from then it is under the praeses of the dioecesis Galliarum. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Walser, Via per A. Graias, 1986.

Dra(v)us

(69 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A navigable river having its source in the Norian Alps (Plin. HN 3,147), flowing into the Danube at Mursa in Pannonia, modern Drava. Some cosmographers also have the Draus rise in the Danube (cosmographia 1,20; 24; Iulius Honorius, cosmographia B 24). The Draus was an important transportation route (Ven. Fort. Vita Martini 4,649) and enjoyed veneration in Pannonia as a river deity. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Emona

(240 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia now Ljubljana (Laibach). Favourably situated on the amber route and on the link between the Balkans and Italy on the banks of the navigable Ljubljanica. Intensively settled from the 12th cent. BC (Necropoleis from the Urnfield culture and the early Iron Age). Probably a military settlement under Augustus (garrison of the legio XV Apollinaris). City founded as colonia Iulia Emona (Plin. HN 3,147), systematically designed in rectangular form (522 × 432 m) around the   cardo and   dec…

Alpes (Alps)

(825 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A. Knowledge of the Alps Proto-Indo-European term for ‘mountain’. Ancient etymology Fest. 4,9 f. (from the white colour of the snow); Serv. Georg. 3,474; Aen. 4,442; 10,13; schol. Luc. 1,183; Isid. Orig. 14,8,18 (Celtic ‘high mountains’). Other mountain ranges are also called Alpes (Pyrenees, Alpes Bastarnicae, Numidicae). First mentions at Hdt. 4. 49. 2 (Alpis river) and Lycoph. 1361 (Salpia) are uncertain. Since Hannibal's march in 218 BC, more exact information is available. Expansi…

Veragri

(102 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Ὀυάραγροι/ Ouáragroi). One of the four people in the Swiss canton of Wallis (Ceutrones [2], Caturiges, Nantuatae; cf. Str. 4,6,6) with chief town Octodurus. As inhabitants of Mons Poeninus (Liv. 21,38,9) the V. organised traffic over the Great Saint Bernard pass. In 57 BC they were attacked by Caesar's legate Sulpicius [I 12] Galba (Caes. Gall. 3,1,1; Cass. Dio 39,5,2), but subjugated only later, by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137; CIL V 7817). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 310 f. A. Geiser, Un mo…

Segusio

(157 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes | Rome Main centre of the Segusini in the Alpes Cottiae, modern Susa (Plin. HN 3,123: regio XI; Ptol. 3,1,40 erroneously places S. in the Alpes Graiae [2. 393-408; 3. 331-333]). S. commanded the route over Mont Genèvre and was the gateway into Italy (Amm. Marc. 15,10,3; Pan. Lat. 4,17,3; 21; 22,2). S. possessed Latin law probably from the time of Augustus and was a municipium from the time of Nero. Constantinus [1] conquered S. in AD 312. Outstanding monuments are an Augustine arch …

Sciri

(118 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe on the Vistula (Plin. HN 4,97), which in the 3rd cent. BC advanced as far as the Black Sea (Syll.3 495, Z. 100 from Olbia). From the 4th cent. AD the S. settled on the northern edge of the Carpathians, came to be dependent on the Hunni and undertook incursions into the Roman Empire (Zos. 4,34,6; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,5,5; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,322). After the death of Attila in AD 453 the S. were defeated by the Goti; some were accepted into Moesia (Iord. Get. 265; Moesi), the rest moved with Odoacer to Italy (Procop. Goth. 1,1,3; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 209,1). Graßl,…

Iuenna

(61 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Roman settlement in Noricum, 23 miles from  Virunum in the direction of Celeia (Tab. Peut. 4,2), modern Globasnitz in the Jaun Valley (Carinthia). Sanctuary of the Celtic god Iovenat on Mount Hemma, developed into a Christian pilgrimage site from the 5th cent.. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography F. Glaser, Die röm. Siedlung I. und die frühchristl. Kirchen am Hemmaberg, 1982.

Vesulus

(63 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Mountain in the Alpes Cottiae with rich stock of game in its pine forests (Verg. Aen. 707 ff.), modern Monte Viso or Monviso (3841 m). It was considered the highest peak in the Alpes (Plin. HN 3,117; Solin. 2,25); The Padus (modern Po; Mela 2,62; Mart. Cap. 6,640) rises on Mount V. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. V., RE 8 A, 1798.

Uberi

(47 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Subsection of the tribe of the Lepontii living near the source of the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) in the upper Valais (Plin. HN 3,135); conquered by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 311.

Tridentum

(180 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Raeti, Raetia | Regio, regiones (modern Trento). Raetic oppidum on the Atesis (Plin. HN 3,130; according to Just. Epit. 20,5,8, Celtic). The municipium Iulia Tridentina in the area of the Alpes Tridentinae (Plin. HN 3,121; Flor. Epit. 1,38,11; Cass. Dio 54,22,1 and 3) was founded under Caesar as the central town of the Tridentini (Str. 4,6,6) and under Augustus allotted to  Regio X  ( tribus Papiria). The city walls from the time of Augustus attest to urban expansion, which led to the greatest heig…

Salla

(94 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] City in Pannonia on the amber road, present-day Zalalövő (Hungary; [1. 14]). After the construction of a fort for auxiliary troops in the 1st cent. AD, the civil infrastructure was developed ( municipium Aelium S.). Destroyed in the Marcomannic War (AD 167-182), it was rebuilt later, in the 4th cent., with a villa publica. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography 1 F. Redö, Zalalövö - Municipium Aelium S., in: G. Hajnóczy et al. (eds.), Pannonia Hungarica Antiqua, 1999, 14 f. 2 J. Šašel, Rimske ceste v Sloveniji (Roman Roads in Slovenia), in: Arheolos̆ka naj…

Caturiges

(122 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Gallic tribe, settling in the  Alpes Cottiae on the upper course of the Durance, mistakenly placed by Ptol. 3,1,35 in the Alpes Graiae, and by Str. 4,6,6 in the mountains above the Salassi. In Caes. B Gall. 1,10,4, the C. are named as a tribe hostile to Rome. Plin. HN 3,125 sees the C. as expelled  Insubres. They were conquered under Augustus (CIL V 7231; 7817 = Plin. HN 3,137). Their capitals were Caturigomagus (modern Chorges) and Eburodunum (modern Embrun). Since the time of Diocletian (AD 284-305), they belonged to the province of Alpes Maritimae. Graßl, Herbert (Salzbu…

Salla

(82 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Stadt in Pannonia an der Bernsteinstraße, h. Zalalövö (Ungarn; [1. 14]). Nach Errichtung eines Hilfstruppenkastells im 1. Jh. n. Chr. erfolgte der Ausbau der zivilen Infrastruktur ( municipium Aelium S.). Zerstörung im Markomannenkrieg (167-182 n. Chr.), danach Wiederaufbau, im 4. Jh. mit villa publica. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography 1 F. Redö, Zalalövö - Municipium Aelium S., in: G. Hajnóczy u. a. (Hrsg.), Pannonia Hungarica Antiqua, 1999, 14 f. 2 J. Šašel, Rimske ceste v Sloveniji (Roman Roads in Slovenia), in: Arheolos̆ka najdis̆c̆a…

Druna

(15 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] h. Drôme, Nebenfluß der Rhône (Auson. Mos. 479). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Iugum Cremonis

(33 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Heute Mont Cramont an der Route des Kleinen St. Bernhard, auf der laut Coelius Antipater (HRR fr. 14 = Liv. 21,38,7) Hannibal die Alpen überschritt. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Alpes Cottiae

(119 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Nach Einzug des regnum ins röm. Reich Verwaltung durch Cottius als praefectus civitatium (CIL V 7231), nach dem Tod Cottius' II. 63 n. Chr. Umwandlung der A. in eine prokuratorische Prov. (Suet. Nero 1), seit dem 3. Jh. n. Chr. unter einem praeses; Hauptort Segusio; weitere Zentren Eburodunum und Brigantio (h. Briançon). Unter Diocletianus kam der Westteil zu den Alpes Maritimae, der Ostteil wurde unter einem praeses der dioecesis Italia zugeteilt (Amm. 15,10,6). Ab dem 6. Jh. n. Chr. wurde Ligurien als A. bezeichnet. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography C. Letta, …

Octodurus

(128 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[English version] Hauptort der Veragri an der Route über den Großen St. Bernhard von It. nach Gallien, h. Martigny. 57 v.Chr. fand hier der Kampf der 12. Legion unter Sulpicius Galba gegen die Gallier statt (Caes. Gall. 3,1,4); um 15 v.Chr. röm. Okkupation. Unter Claudius um 47 n.Chr. wurde O. als Forum Claudii Augusti bzw. Vallensium mit latinischem Recht neu gegr. (Plin. nat. 3,135), in der Folgezeit zum insula-artig angelegten Umschlagplatz im Alpenverkehr ausgebaut, mit Forum (mit Basilika), Thermen, Nymphaeum, Amphitheater, gallo-röm. Umgangstempeln, Villen…
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