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Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Vir clarissimus

(273 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or clarissimus vir = c.v., literally approximately a 'highly regarded man'; Greek lamprótatos, attested from c. AD 160; until the 3rd cent. AD also krátistos). In the (late) Republican Period a general senatorial honorary attribute; in the Imperial Period VC developed into a title of rank for members of the senatorial class (Senatus). Up to the early 2nd cent. AD it became a fixed title for senators (until the 4th cent. it was c.v.) which from the 2nd cent. was also transferred to their relatives ( clarissima femina, c. iuvenis, c. puer, c. puella). As a rule women lost …

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Mercurinus

(117 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (better known as Auxentius of Durostorum in Moesia). Student of the Gothic bishop Ulfila, perhaps a Goth himself. M. had to give up his bishopric in AD 380 after the edict of Theodosius I with regard to the return of the churches to the Orthodox. Shortly afterwards he was consecrated as Arian bishop of Milan ( Arianism). He was an opponent of Ambrosius; he exerted great influence on the court of Valentinian II. His ‘On the Life and Death of Ulfila ( De vita et obitu Ulfilae). (PL Suppl. 1, 703-707) has come down to us. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography K. G…

Montius Magnus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Came from Africa, proconsul of Constantinople around AD 350, quaestor sacri palatii of Constantius [5] Gallus AD 351-353; while seeking to gain influence with the life guards during Gallus' struggle with the praef. praet. Domitianus [3], he was murdered by soldiers incited by Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,7,12-14; 9,4; 11,17; Philostorgius 3,28; PLRE 1, 535-536, 11; 1, 608). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Nicentius

(135 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Official under Hermogenes, AD 358 In AD 358, after occupying other, unknown offices, he became consularis Syriae. He was fined and dismissed by the praef. praet. Hermogenes [10] for failings in the supply of the army in Callinicum. He may have received a new office in 360 from the comes Orientis Modestus [2]. N. was highly regarded by Libanius (Lib. Ep. 122; 193). PLRE 1, 628 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, 4th cent. AD Tribunus et notarius, lived in Mediolanum/Milan, where he was said to be miraculously he…

Licinianus

(201 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] [- - - ] L. Cos. Suff. between 149 and 160 AD Senator, whose funerary inscription has been preserved in CIL VI 1441 = XIV 2927 = VI Suppl. VIII Add. ad 1441. After commanding a legion and holding another office he became governor of Aquitania and consul suffectus under Antoninus Pius, between c. AD 149 and 160. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Alföldy, Konsulat, 193 PIR2 L 169. [German version] [2] Lucius (Valerius) L. Friend of Martial, from Bilbilis From Bilbilis, like his friend, the poet Martial; a friend of Licinius [II 25] Sura as well. He was a w…

Nebridius

(290 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis, AD 365 Praefectus praetorio Orientis in AD 365. N. was born in Etruria. His career led through lesser offices, held prior to 354, via the comitiva Orientis 354-358 and the quaestura (sacri palatii) at the court of the Caesar Iulianus [11] 359(?)-360 and finally to the Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul (Lib. Epist. 1315). N. attained this office in 360, but withdrew into private life as a loyal follower of Constantius [2] II in 361, when Julian was readying himself for a campaign again…

Perfectissimus

(259 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir perfectissimus, Greek διασημότατος/ diasēmótatos). From no later than the time of Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) onward honorary predicate and title of rank for equites above the rank of egregius ( vir egregius ), but under eminentissimus . Initially it was conferred on a person without relation to any particular office. Before Diocletianus (284-305) the title is recorded for e.g. praefectus [3] vigilum, praefectus [12] annonae and praefectus Aegypti , procuratores a rationibus ( procurator ) and praesides ( praeses ). In the beginn…

Primicerius

(152 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Literally 'the first' ( primus) on the 'wax tablet' ( cera) of a roster, primicerius describes the head of an office ( officium) or section in military and civil Roman departments (Chancellery). There were primicerii, for example, for the domestici et protectores ( domesticus ), the duces ( dux ), the scholae and fabricae of the magister officiorum , among the offices at court [C], and in the central administration and the schola notariorum. The rank of a primicerius depended on his activities. The primicerius sacri cubiculi, who was subordinate to the praepositus sacri …

Invictus

(171 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (‘the undefeated’, ‘invincible’). Epithet of Roman emperors since  Commodus. Already in the Republican period, this epithet was occasionally bestowed on victorious military leaders (e.g.  Cornelius [I 71] Scipio), It is known that  Traianus [1] bore the Greek epithet ἀνίκητος/ aníkētos (of the same meaning). Commodus was the first to turn it into a permanent imperial epithet; this must be understood in the context of his veneration of  Hercules. Only with the Severans ( Severan dynasty) did Invictus lose this connotation and referred to the triumphancy …

Severinus

(237 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Pupil of Libanius, 4th cent. AD Pupil of Libanius, then lawyer, entered service at the Imperial court (AD 363?), was comes rerum privatarum to Theodosius I (AD 388-390), comes sacrarum largitionum in 391 and finally praef. urbi Constantinopolitanae in 398-399. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography P. Petit, Les étudiants de Libanius, 1956 PLRE 1, 830 f. (S. 3). [German version] [2] S. of Noricum Monk in Noricum ripense, 5th cent. d. 8.1.482 in the monastery of Favianis (Mautern on the Danube) which he had founded. His actual …

Vetranio

(140 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman emperor 1 March - 25 December AD 350, of lowly origin from Upper Pannonia, worked his way up to magister peditum under Constantinus [1] and Constans [1]. When Magnentius was proclaimed emperor, V. was in Illyricum. At the request of Constantina, he allowed himself to be proclaimed emperor in order to prevent his army siding with Magnentius, and was recognized by Constantius [2]. Since the latter's support was too weak, however, V. formed an alliance with Magnentius, but minted no coins with Mag…

Minervius

(100 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] Consul vor 370/1 n.Chr Consular vor 370/1 n.Chr.; zu dieser Zeit Mitglied einer Senatsgesandtschaft an den Hof Valentinianus' I., um gegen den Einsatz der Folter bei Senatoren zu protestieren; vielleicht der bei Symmachus (ep. 4,30) erwähnte M. aus Trier (Augusta Treverorum). PLRE 1, 603, 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] Amtsträger, um 395 n.Chr. Vielleicht Sohn von M. [1]. 394/5 n.Chr. wohl magister epistularum, dann in Gallien tätig; 397/8 comes rerum privatarum, 398/9 comes sacrarum largitionum; Adressat mehrere…

Macedonius

(143 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[English version] [1] magister officiorum 382 n.Chr. 381 n.Chr. comes sacrarum largitionum (Cod. Theod. 11,30,39), spätestens 382 magister officiorum . Er unterstützte die Priscillianisten (Priscillianus), was ihn in Gegensatz zu Ambrosius brachte. Flüchtige Mitglieder der Zwangskorporation der mancipes salinarum (“Salzpächter”) bewahrte er vor einer Anklage (Symm. rel. 44). Nach dem Tode des Gratianus [2] wurde er angeklagt und festgenommen (Symm. rel. 36), obwohl er versuchte, in eine Kirche zu flüchten. Über eine Verurteilung ist nichts bekannt. Groß-Albenhausen, Kir…

Palatini

(344 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Der Begriff p. diente seit dem 4. Jh.n.Chr. als Bezeichnung für am Hof ( palatium) oder doch in enger Beziehung zu diesem in mil. oder ziviler Stellung Dienende. Zu den p. der militia armata gehörten die Soldaten der scholae palatinae , außerdem die der erstmals 365 bezeugten, aber wohl schon um 320 von den comitatenses geschiedenen Elitetruppen. Aus der Notitia dignitatum kennen wir 157 Einheiten der p., von denen die meisten den magistri militum praesentales ( magister militum ) unterstanden; allerdings gab es im Laufe der Zeit mehrfa…

Magister officiorum

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] A. Entstehung der Ämter Von Constantinus [1] I. geschaffenes spätant. Amt, das zu den höchsten des röm. Reiches zählte (Not. dign. or. 11; Not. dign. occ. 9); erstmals bezeugt 320 n.Chr. (Cod. Theod. 16,10,1). Dem m.o., der ständiges Mitglied des consistorium war, waren wohl zunächst die großen kaiserlichen Kanzleien ( scrinium ) des magister memoriae, magister epistularum und magister libellorum und niedrigere Palastbeamte wie admissionales, interpretes, mensores ( mensor ), decani ( decanius ), stratores, cursores, lampadarii sowie notarii ( notarius

Licinianus

(195 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Köln) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] [- - - ] L. Consul suff. zwischen 149 und 160 n. Chr. Senator, dessen Grabinschrift in CIL VI 1441 = XIV 2927 = VI Suppl. VIII Add. ad 1441 erhalten ist. Nach dem Legionskommando und einem weiteren Amt wurde er Statthalter von Aquitania und consul suffectus unter Antoninus Pius, etwa zw. 149 und 160 n.Chr. Eck, Werner (Köln) Bibliography Alföldy, Konsulat, 193  PIR2 L 169. [English version] [2] Lucius L. Freund von Martial, aus Bilbilis Aus Bilbilis stammend wie der Dichter Martial, mit dem er befreundet war; ebenso befreundet mit Licinius [II 25] Su…

Remigius

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Aus Mogontiacum (Mainz), 355 n. Chr. rationarius des mag. militum Silvanus in Gallien, ca. 365-371 mag. officiorum Valentinianus' I.; er deckte in dieser Zeit die Machenschaften seines Schwagers Romanus in Africa. Dies und die Usurpation des Mauren Firmus [3] führten zu seiner Ablösung. 373 erhängte sich R., als seine Verfehlungen aufgedeckt wurden. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Gerontius

(279 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Armenier um 350 n. Chr., hatte großen Einfluß am Hof in Konstantinopolis Armenier, 356/7 n.Chr. besaß er sein erstes Amt in der Reichsverwaltung (Lib. epist. 538 Foerster), praefectus Aegypti 361/2. 364/5 hatte er (ohne Amt) großen Einfluß am Hof in Konstantinopolis (Lib. epist. 1484 u.a.). PLRE 1, 393 (G. 2). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] Befehlshaber der Stadt Tomi 384-387 n.Chr. Befehlshaber der Stadt Tomi 384-387 n.Chr. Er ließ dort in röm. Diensten stehende Barbaren niederhauen, weil sie einen Übe…
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