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Olympios

(366 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ὀλύμπιος). [English version] [1] Hofarzt Constantius' [2] II., 4. Jh. Arzt, Freund (und Schüler?) des Libanios, den er 354 n.Chr. wegen Kopf- und Nierenschmerzen behandelte. In den beiden darauffolgenden Jahren besuchte er Rom, von wo aus er nach Konstantinopolis zurückkehrte und Hofarzt von Constantius [2] II. wurde (Lib. epist. 51; 65; 353; 534; 539). Nutton, Vivian (London) [English version] [2] Amtsträger (4.Jh. n. Chr.) O. aus Antiocheia, um 355 n.Chr. consularis(?) Macedoniae, Senator erst in Rom, dann (ab 358) in Konstantinopel, wo er 361 Befreiung von munera ( munus

Pinianus

(216 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] [1] Praefectus urbi Romae 385-387 n. Chr. 385-387 n.Chr. praefectus urbi Romae, vom Senat 395 mit Postumianus zum Gesandten an Kaiser Valentinianus II. bestellt, um wegen einer Teuerung Hilfe zu erbitten. Um die Wahl eines weiteren Gesandten Paulinus kam es zum Streit. Wahrscheinlich Vater oder Onkel von P. [2]. PLRE 1, 702 (P. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [English version] [2] christl. Asket 4./5. Jh. Neffe oder Sohn von P. [1], 396 n.Chr. im Alter von 16 oder 17 J. mit der jüngeren Melania [2] verheiratet, die ihn nach dem…

Palatini

(386 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The term 'palatini' was used since the 4th cent. AD as a designation for those serving in a military or civil capacity at court ( palatium) or in close association with it. Among the palatini of the militia armata were the soldiers of the scholae palatinae and also those of the elite troops first attested in 365, but probably already separated from the comitatenses around 320. We know from the notitia dignitatum of 157 units of palatini, most of whom came under the jurisdiction of the magistri militum praesentales ( magister militum ); however, in the…

Magister officiorum

(1,248 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A. Origin of the office An office of late antiquity created by Constantinus [1] I, which was among the highest in the Roman empire (Not. Dign. Or. 11; Not. Dign. Occ. 9), attested for the first time in AD 320 (Cod. Theod. 16,10,1). The great imperial chancelleries ( scrinium ) of the magister memoriae, magister epistularum and magister libellorum and lesser palace officials, such as admissionales, interpretes, mensores ( mensor ), decani ( decanius ), stratores, cursores, lampadarii , and notarii ( notarius ) were first of all probably mandated to the magister officiorum

Minervius

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul before AD 370/1 Consular before AD 370/1; at this time a member of a Senate deputation to the court of Valentinianus I, protesting against the use of torture on senators; possibly the M. of Trier mentioned by Symmachus (ep. 4,30) ( Augusta Treverorum). PLRE 1, 603, 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, around AD 395 Possibly a son of M. [1]. probably magister epistularum in AD 394/5, thereafter active in Gaul; comes rerum privatarum in 397/8, comes sacrarum largitionum in 398/9; addressee of several letters of S…

Promotus

(105 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius P., possibly comes Africae before AD 386, magister militum 386-391; defeated the Greuthungi in the lower reaches of the Danube as magister peditum per Thracias in 386; magister equitum 388-391. P. led the cavalry against Magnus Maximus [II 7] in 388, became consul in 389 and extricated Theodosius I [II 2] from a difficult military position in 391. A fierce conflict with Rufinus [II 3] led to fighting in the consistorium and, in 391, probably also to P.' death in Thrace in an ambush allegedly instigated by Rufinus. His tw…

Magnus

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
Roman cognomen, which originally designated bodily size or birth order (‘the Elder’), as in the Republican period in the case of Sp. Postumius Albinus M. ( cos. 148 BC) and T. Roscius M. (Cic. Rosc. Am. 17) [1. 275; 3. 47]. As an assumption of the epithet of Alexander [4] ‘the Great’ (ὁ μέγας/ ho mégas, in the sense of great historical importance), first taken by Cn. Pompeius ( cos. 70 and 55) in the 1st cent. BC, then inherited by his sons Cn. and Sex. Pompeius and their descendants. Sex. Pompeius used M. also as a praenomen resp. nomen gentile [4. 364f.]. In the Imperial period, more frequen…

Princeps castrorum

(79 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] PC peregrinorum or princeps peregrinorum was the designation of the highest-ranking centurio in the frumentarii stationed at Rome in the castra peregrina. Until the late 2nd cent. AD, the PC had no further opportunity for promotion, but from the 3rd cent. on, he could attain the highest offices of state (governor, praefectus praetorio ) (Cass. Dio 78,14; CIL VIII 2529; ILS 1372). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography A. von Domaszewski, Die Rangordnung des römischen Heeres, 21967.

Iustina

(145 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman empress, married in a second marriage to  Valentinianus I, mother of Valentinianus II. Other children: Iusta, Grata, Galla [2]. She supported the Arian line of belief and is said to have backed the Milan ecclesiastical conflict with  Ambrosius of AD 385/86. This concerned the use of a church by the Arians, but it seems unlikely that she would have been able to pursue this alone [1. 170-173]. In any case this episode has resulted up to the present day in a negative image of I…

Olympius

(422 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
(Ὀλύμπιος; Olýmpios). [German version] [1] Court doctor of Constantine [2] II, 4th cent. Doctor, friend (and pupil) of Libanius, whom he treated in AD 354 for pains in the head and kidneys. In the two years that followed he visited Rome from where he returned to Constantinople and became court physician to Constantine [2] II (Lib. Ep. 51; 65; 353; 534; 539). Nutton, Vivian (London) [German version] [2] Office bearer (4th cent. AD) O. of Antioch, around AD 355 consularis Macedoniae, senator first in Rome, then (from 358) in Constantinople where in 361 he achieved exemption from munera ( munu…

Maria

(1,540 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Albrecht, Ruth (Hamburg) | Petersen, Silke (Hamburg)
I. Roman women [German version] [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1] Name of two sisters of C. Marius [I 1]; one was the wife of M. Gratidius [2] and mother of C. Marius [I 7] Gratidianus, the other one was the mother of C. Lusius [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] Possibly wife of Honorius Mentioned by Claudianus (Laus Serenae 69), possibly wife of Honorius [2], the brother of Theodosius I, therefore the mother of Serena and Thermantia. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography J. R. Martindale, Notes on the Consuls of 381 and 382, in: Hi…

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Moderator

(112 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Late antique collective term for those provincial governors who held the title of v ir clarissimus (Cod. Theod. 1,10,8 et passim), similar to rector or iudex. It was Justinian who in AD 535 first used moderator as a genuine official title for the governors of particular provinces with the rank of spectabilis (Court titles; Moderator Iustinianus Helenoponti, Nov. 28, Phoniciae ad Libanum, Edict. 4, Arabiae, Nov. 102). This last had civil and military authority. Occasionally moderator is also found as the title of officials who were not governors, includin…

Pinianus

(224 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387 Praefectus urbi Romae AD 385-387, P. was sent as a legate to emperor Valentinianus II by the senate in 395 with Postumianus to seek assistance with regard to a rise in prices. The choice of another legate, Paulinus, proved contentious. Probably the father or uncle of P. [2]. PLRE 1, 702 (P. 1). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Christian ascetic 4th/5th cent. Nephew or son of P. [1], in AD 396 AD at the age of 16 or 17  the younger Melania [2], who after the death of their two chil…

Cleodamus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Κλεόδαμος; Kleódamos). C. of Byzantium, commissioned by  Gallienus with strengthening the fortifications of the cities near the mouth of the Danube against the  Heruli in AD 267 (SHA Gall. 13,6). In the same year (not later under Claudius II) C. drove the Heruli from Athens, which they had conquered (Zon. 12,26, p. 151 Dindorf III). PIR2 C 1144. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Gerontius

(304 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Armenian, about AD 350, had great influence at the court in Constantinople Armenian, held his first office in the imperial administration in AD 356-357 (Lib. Ep. 538 Foerster), praefectus Aegypti in 361-362. In 364-365 (without office) he had great influence at the court in Constantinople (Lib. Ep. 1484 etc.). PLRE 1, 393 (G. 2). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Commander of the city of Tomi AD 384-387 Commander of the city of Tomi in AD 384-387. He had barbarians in Roman service executed for planning an assault…

Remigius

(68 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] From Mogontiacum (Mainz), rationarius of the mag. militum Silvanus in Gaul in AD 355, mag. officiorum of Valentinianus I c. 365-371; in this period he covered up the machinations of his brother-in-law Romanus in Africa. This and the usurpation of the Moor Firmus [3] led to his dismissal. In 373, when his misdeeds were discovered, R. hanged himself. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Clauss 186 f.  PLRE 1, 763.

Petronius

(3,217 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] High official of the late 4th/early 5th cents. AD Vicarius Hispaniarum AD 395-397, at the court of Mediolanium [1] (Milan) from 398; addressee, with his brother Patroinus, of numerous letters from Symmachus. He gained an unknown office in 401 ( comes rerum privatarum?). From 402-408, P. was praef. praet. per Gallias; while there, he introduced a convocation of the seven provinces, which met annually at Arelate (Arles) (Zos. Epist. 8 = MGH Epp 3, p. 14). He may have been recalled in connection with the usurpation of Constantine…

Mascezel

(87 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Christian son of the Moorish king Nubel; in AD 374 he supported the unsuccessful attempt at usurpation by his brother Firmus [3] against Valentinian I. In 397 he fled to Italy to escape his other brother Gildo, who had tried to kill him and had had his sons killed. In 398, under Stilicho's command, he fought against Gildo and won (allegedly through a miracle) despite numerical inferiority. He is said to have been drowned by Stilicho shortly afterwards.PLRE 1, 566. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Victor

(1,595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Et al.
('winner, victor(ious)'). [German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen, only attested from the mid-1st cent. BC (Cic. Att. 14,14,2), but from then one of the commonest bynames, and a name of choice. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 57; 72; 89; 96; 98; 278 H. Solin, Die stadtrömische Sklavennamen, 1996, 100 f. [German version] [2] Roman epithet for gods (Roman epithet for gods), see Hercules; Iuppiter; Mars; Tibur. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [3] Imperial title Roman Imperial title from the early 4th c…
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