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Fish dishes (and seafood)

(588 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] Overall term for meals prepared from fish, crustaceans and molluscs. The large range of varieties of fish and seafood in the Mediterranean was very different, depending on the season and area of the catch; consumer taste also changed over time. Of the large number of species used for fish dishes (cf. the catalogues in Plin. HN 9,43-104; Ath. 3,30-36; 7,277-330; 8,355-358; Auson. Mos. 75-149) we should emphasize not only  tuna but particularly  crustaceans,  molluscs,  snails and  …

Neoterius

(150 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] Flavius N., praefectus praetorio Galliarum AD 390. N., a novus homo , began his career in the west of the Empire. In 366 he probably went as tribunus et notarius of Valentinian I. to North Africa (Amm. Marc. 26,5,14). He became a close friend of Theodosius, who took N. with him to his part of the Empire after his nomination as emperor and entrusted him with the post of praefectus praetorio of the East from AD 380 to 381. Although criticism of his conduct in office was voiced loudly (Lib. Or. 2,72-73), Theodosius I. held onto N.. He sent him back to …

Praefectus praetorio

(1,323 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
('praetorian prefect'; Greek ἔπαρχος/ éparchos or ὕπαρχος τῆς αὐλῆς/ hýparchos tês aulês). Holder of one of the most important posts in the administration of the Roman empire. [German version] A. Principate Augustus [1] established the post in 2 BC when he placed two men of equestrian rank ( equites Romani ) at the head of his bodyguard, the praetorians ( cohortes praetorianae) (Cass. Dio 55,10). The PP's original task was to command the imperial bodyguard that protected the emperor in his headquarters ( praetorium ). As early as the reign of Tiberius [II …

Meat dishes

(495 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] A collective term for dishes made from the muscle tissue and innards of mammals and birds. In Antiquity, a minor number of meat dishes was made using birds (e.g., blackbird, thrush, duck, goose, chicken, pigeon, quail) and game (especially rabbit, red deer ( Deer), wild boar ( Pig); in the Roman period also rabbit and dormouse). However, most meat dishes were prepared from domestic animals - sheep, pig, cattle and goat. The pig must be particularly emphasized in this group because…

Beverages

(495 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] In antiquity there were countless types of drinks depending on the time and region and they were drunk undiluted, mixed together or mixed with additives (fat, spices, sweet substances), hot or cold. They can be divided into three groups according to their basic components: 1. Beverages made of water. Water (Plin. HN 31,31-72) was an indispensable nutritional substance (Pind. Ol. 1,1; Vitr. De arch. 8,1,1; Plin. HN 31,31-72) and also an essential component of two important drinks c…

Vegetables

(523 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] Mostly annual plants, parts of which are suitable for eating, either raw or cooked. In the ancient world, there were large numbers of vegetables; there is evidence for Imperial Italy alone of fifty garden species and fifty wild species. Today largely unknown or uncommon, in ancient sources they were divided into three large groups: 1. legumina (primarily the protein-rich pulses, such as beans, peas, chickpeas, lentils, lupins; cf. the lists in Columella 2,7,1-2; Plin. HN 18,117-136); 2. olera (especially the vitamin- and fibre-rich leaf-vegetables, tubers,…

Spices

(470 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (Greek ἡδύσματα/ hēdýsmata; Latin condimenta). Flavouring ingredients of food and drink, mostly from particular parts of indigenous wild and garden plants and exotic ones. A great abundance of spices was known in antiquity, although availability and use differed from period to period to a considerable extent. In the 1st century AD Caelius [II 10] Apicius used in total sixty spices, of which ten were imported ( cf. the lists of spices in Plin. HN 12; 19,101-175; Ath. 2,68a; Apici excerpta a Vinidario 1 André). The most important indigenous spic…

Postumianus

(110 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] Praefectus praetorio Orientis in AD 383. An orthodox Christian from the West, P. rose above various otherwise unknown officials to the praetorian praefecture of the East (Greg. Naz. Epist. 173). He took up office at the beginning of 383  (Cod. Theod. 9,42,10), but held it only until the end of the year (Cod. Theod. 16,5,12). After returning to the west he was entrusted from 395 to 396 with a legation from the city of Rome's Senate to the emperor (Symmachus Ep. 6,22,3; 6,26,2). Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) Bibliography W. Enßlin, s. v. P. (2), RE 22, 890  PLRE 1, 718 (P. 2); c…

Fat

(162 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] Fluid, semi-solid or solid material obtained from vegetable or animal cells, and of great importance to human  Nutrition as a source of energy and vehicle of flavour. In early antiquity  Butter, lard and suet predominated. Use of these animal fats subsequently remained at a high level in antiquity, especially in northern regions; in the Mediterranean region, olive oil eventually gained absolute pride of place. Although relatively expensive (CIL III 2, p. 827 3,1-3; 4,10-11; p. 828…

Deipnon

(366 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (δεῖπνον; deîpnon). In the early Greek period a term applying to every daytime meal. But during the 5th cent. BC in Athens, probably as a consequence of urbanization, the meaning of deîpnon had become restricted to the main meal, which began at sunset. There was a set order to the deîpnon. This comprised the actual meal, with the possibility of several courses, and the dessert, which might lead on to the drinking session ( sympósion); not until the second part of the deîpnon was any amount of wine drunk. As the Greeks saw the deîpnon as the expression of a link with the go…

Egg

(126 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (ᾠόν; ōión, ovum). In the ancient kitchen eggs of all domestic birds, such as ducks, pheasants, geese, chicken, peafowl, partridges and pigeons and occasionally even wild fowl, were used. In general usage the meaning of ‘egg’ was narrowed to chicken egg, which was known in Greece no later than the 6th cent. BC and was later much esteemed in the Roman world. The chicken egg was a quite affordable food (Edictum Diocletiani 6,43), which was popularly served as an appetizer at meals (Hor. Sat. 1,3,6f.: ab ovo usque ad mala). It also had a place in haute cuisine:  Apicius …

Pastries

(300 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (Greek πλακοῦς, plakoûs, Latin placenta), mostly individual sweets, found in many varieties in ancient tradition according to region and period, fashion and purpose (cf. the lists in Ath. 14,643-648). They consisted without exception of fine meal (initially barley, later predominantly wheat), water, milk or shortening and (usually) a raising agent. Other ingredients, such as eggs, fruit, spices, (cream-)cheese, nuts and sweeteners supplied the typical aroma and flavour of a kind of pa…

Mead

(220 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[German version] (Greek ὑδρόμελι/ hydrómeli, Latin [ aqua] mulsa). A beverage usually made of one part honey and two parts water (Columella 12,12; Dioscorides, De materia medica 5,9 Wellmann) that was usually consumed fermented with an alcohol content of 15% but occasionally also unfermented. Apart from beer, mead was the oldest intoxicating drink in the Mediterranean. When wine arrived in the historical period, mead was supplanted first in Greece and then largely in Italy, especially because grapes wer…

Neoterius

(127 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] Flavius N., praefectus praetorio Galliarum 390 n.Chr. N., ein novus homo , begann seine Laufbahn im Westen des Reichs. 366 ging er wohl als tribunus et notarius des Valentinianus I. nach Nordafrica (Amm. 26,5,14). Er wurde ein Vertrauter des Theodosius, der ihn nach seiner Ernennung zum Kaiser in seinen Reichsteil mitnahm und ihm von 380 bis 381 die Praetorianerpraefektur des Ostens übertrug. Obwohl Kritik an seiner Amtsführung laut geworden war (Lib. or. 2,72-73), hielt Theodosius I. an N. fest. Er schic…

Praefectus praetorio

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
(“Praetorianerpraefekt”; griech. ἔπαρχος bzw. ὕπαρχος τῆς αὐλῆς/ éparchos bzw. hýparchos tēs aulḗs). Inhaber eines der wichtigsten Ämter in der Reichsverwaltung der röm. Kaiserzeit. [English version] A. Prinzipat Das Amt wurde im J. 2 v. Chr. durch Augustus eingerichtet, als dieser zwei Männer aus dem Ritterstand ( equites Romani ) an die Spitze seiner Leibgarde, der Praetorianer ( cohortes praetorianae), stellte (Cass. Dio 55,10). Die urspr. Aufgabe des p.p. bestand im Kommando der kaiserl. Leibwache, die den Schutz des Kaisers im Hauptquartier ( praetorium

Fleischspeisen

(475 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] Sammelbegriff für Speisen aus dem Muskelgewebe und den Innereien von Säugetieren und Vögeln. In der Ant. bereitete man F. zu einem kleineren Teil aus Vögeln (z.B. Amsel, Drossel, Ente, Gans, Huhn, Taube, Wachtel) und Wild (insbesondere Hase, Rotwild (Hirsch), Wildschwein (Schwein), in röm. Zeit zusätzlich auch Kaninchen und Haselmaus). Die meisten F. wurden aus dem Fleisch der Haustiere Schaf, Schwein, Rind und Ziege gekocht. Aus dieser Gruppe ist bes. das Schwein hervorzuheben, …

Met

(194 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] (griech. ὑδρόμελι/ hydrómeli, lat. [ aqua] mulsa). Getränk aus zumeist einem Teil Honig und zwei Teilen Wasser (Colum. 12,12; Dioskurides, De materia medica 5,9 Wellmann), das frisch, häufiger aber vergoren mit einem Alkoholgehalt von etwa 15% konsumiert wurde. Neben Bier war M. das älteste Rauschgetränk im Mittelmeerraum. Als in histor. Zeit der Wein aufkam, wurde M. zunächst in Griechenland, später auch in It. weitgehend verdrängt, nicht zuletzt deshalb, weil Trauben in größeren Meng…

Salinum

(101 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] (ἁλία/ halía). Kleines Salzgefäß aus Silber (Plin. nat. 33,153), gelegentlich auch aus Ton. Es gehörte in jeden röm. Haushalt und diente zum Nachsalzen der Speisen bei Tisch, hatte aber auch eine bestimmte Funktion für den Hauskult: Bis in die Kaiserzeit vollzog man zw. Hauptgang und Nachspeise mit Hilfe des s. ein Speiseopfer (Liv. 26,36,6; Stat. silv. 1,4,130 f.). Diese kult. Bed. erklärt, warum das s. vom Vater auf den Sohn vererbt wurde (Hor. carm. 2,16,13 f.). Mola salsa Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) Bibliography M. Besnier, s. v. S., DS IV/2, 1022  A. Hug, s. v. S.…

Comissatio

(145 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] Das Trinkgelage der Römer, schloß regelmäßig an eine festliche cena an und dauerte oft bis tief in die Nacht. Lange Zeit blieb sie nur Männern vorbehalten, seit Ende der röm. Republik konnten aber auch Frauen am Trinkgelage teilnehmen. Die c., eine in sozialer Hinsicht höchst bedeutsame Form der Geselligkeit, drang spätestens Ende des 3. Jh.v.Chr. nach Rom. Ihr Name leitet sich vom griech. Wort für Gelage, κῶμος ( kṓmos), ab; ihre Struktur und Regeln entsprachen weitgehend denen des Symposions (Gastmahl). Neben dem Trinken bestand die Unterhaltun…

Getränke

(432 words)

Author(s): Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster)
[English version] In der Ant. gab es je nach Zeit und Region unzählige Formen von G., die pur, miteinander vermischt, versetzt mit Zutaten (Fett, Gewürzen, Süßstoffen) heiß oder kalt getrunken wurden. Sie lassen sich nach ihren Grundbestandteilen in drei Gruppen einteilen: 1. G. aus Wasser. Wasser (Plin. nat. 31,31-72) war ein unentbehrliches Nahrungsmittel (Pind. O. 1,1; Vitr. 8,1,1; Plin. nat. 31,31-72) und zudem ein notwendiger Bestandteil zweier wichtiger alkoholhaltiger G.: Met und Bier. Met,…
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