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(529 words)

Author(s): Harbeck-Pingel, Bernd
[German Version] In one sense, sympathy has its roots in Greek philosophy (Natural philosophy, Hellenism, Neoplatonism), where it denotes harmony with nature, while 18th-century English moral philosophy ¶ used it primarily to describe intersubjective relations. On the one hand, the natural philosophy of the Classical era prepared the way logically for the ontological correlation of the interpretations of Poseidonius (Reinhardt, 183), who viewed sympathy as an emotional response that gives expression to a principle inherent…


(288 words)

Author(s): Harbeck-Pingel, Bernd
[German Version] refers to a civic ideal virtue (Virtues) accentuating the simple, respectable life. The middle class employed it stereotypically in the 18th century to distinguish itself from the noble way of life. Since the late 18th century, the meaning of “honesty” has been restricted to “truthfulness/sincerity.” C.F. Gellert treats honor in the context of the Christian life as a basic term for the acceptance of the individual in public. G.C. Lichtenberg ( Sudelbücher DI56; EI154; FI550) still mentions honesty as characteristic of middle-class self-expression, al…


(740 words)

Author(s): Harbeck-Pingel, Bernd
[German Version] I. Anthropology Unlike annoyance, which can be directed against events or persons, wrath is an emotional state of evaluation which, as a result of subjective epistemic schemata, is directed against actions of other agents (and against the latter) that are either witnessed directly or communicated by a third party. That the wrathful agent, sees others as violating justified expectations and claims is expressed somatically and through communication. Wrath/anger is classed as one of t…


(1,558 words)

Author(s): Harbeck-Pingel, Bernd | Puca, Rosa Maria | Schmidt, Heinz
[German Version] I. Ethics – II. Psychology – III. Practical Theology I. Ethics The history of the concepts “motive” and “motivation” is accompanied by the related term “drive.” Its significance is primarily philosophical; its theological relevance is only secondary. In the theology of Thomas Aquinas, the term motivum as a translation of κίνησις/ kínēsis is an appropriation from the Aristotelian laws of motion. Aquinas employs this concept in order to effect precise distinctions ( Summa theologiae I/II, q. 9): the intellect moves the will in presenting its object to…