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Pandora

(543 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πανδώρα/ Pandṓra). Her name ('She who gives everything') is used as an epiclesis of chthonic deities such as Gaia and Hecate (Orph. A. 974ff.; schol. Aristoph. Av. 971). It is not possible to discern a clear development of the figure of P. in the transmitted versions of the myth that would clarify her connection with those deities. P. as the original or first woman can first be found in Hesiodus (Theog. 570-591; Hes. Op. 57-105). At Zeus' order, P. is formed from earth and water by Hephaestus, adorned and equipped with skills by Athen…

Iocaste

(232 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἰοκάστη/ Iokástē, in older sources also Ἐπικάστη/Epicaste). Daughter of  Menoeceus, sister of  Creon, wife of  Laius, mother and later wife of  Oedipus. In spite of the negative oracle of Apollo in Delphi, Laius fathers Oedipus with I. After his birth, Oedipus is abandoned, later kills his father and, after solving the puzzle of the  Sphinx, marries his mother. In the older sources, the gods reveal the incest (Hom. Od. 11, 271-280), whereupon I. kills herself. Here, I. usually has…

Aerope

(147 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀερόπη; Aerópē). Daughter of Catreus, granddaughter of Minos II. Because of a prophecy that Catreus will be killed by the children of A., Catreus hands her and her sister Clymene over to  Nauplius to be sold (Apollod. 3,15) or to be killed; possibly on account of a romantic attachment to a slave (schol. Soph. Aj. 1297 about Euripides' ‘Cretan Women’). Nauplius, however, protects them, and in Argus gives her to  Pleisthenes as wife. Both sons,  Agamemnon and  Menelaus (Hes. fr. 195…

Penelope

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνελόπη/ Pēnelópē, Homeric: Πηνελόπεια/ Pēnelópeia, Latin Penelope, Penelopa). Wife of Odysseus. From antiquity, her name has been interpreted in two ways: according to one, P. means 'weaveress', in reference to the typical female activity which plays such a central role in the Odyssey, while according to the other, her name is derived from pēnélops ('duck'), with the explanation that she had allegedly been thrown into the sea by her parents and had been saved by ducks. For an etymological explanation of P.'s name, see [1]. P. was the daughter of the Arcadian ki…

Alcestis

(207 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἄλκηστις; Alkēstis). Daughter of  Pelias and Anaxibie (Hom. Il. 2,714). Her participation in the supposed rejuvenation of Pelias (Diod. Sic. 4,52,2; 53,2; Hyg. Fab. 24) does not fit with A.'s hand being asked of Pelias by  Admetus of Pherae -- which with Apollo's help was successful. Admetus can only escape the death he is to suffer, according to later sources (Apollod. 1,105) because of a neglected sacrifice, if someone dies in his place. Only A. declares herself prepared to do t…

Procris

(261 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πρόκρις/ Prókris, Lat. Procris). Daughter either of Erechtheus and Praxithea (Apollod. 3,196) or Pandion (Hyg. Fab. 189; 241) or Iphiclus (Serv. Aen. 6,445). Renowned hunter, married to the Athenian hunter Cephalus [1], who, disguised, tests her fidelity by seducing her with gifts (cf. Pherecydes acc. to Schol. Hom. Od. 11,321, Ov. Met. 7,690-865, Antoninus Liberalis 41). Ashamed, she flees to Minos or Artemis, her hunting companion (Callim. H. 3,209). From Artemis or Minos, P. rece…

Myrrha

(212 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Μύρρα; Mýrrha). Daughter of the Cyprian king Cinyras and Cenchreis or of the Assyrian king Theias. The gods' anger causes her to fall in love with her father. She is able to have sexual intercourse with him without being recognized, and becomes pregnant. When he recognizes her he tries to kill her; Zeus or Aphrodite takes pity on her and transforms her into a tree; her tears are the resin of the myrrh tree. Later Adonis is born from that tree (Apollod. 3,183f. = Panyassis fr. 27 B…

Scylla

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Σκύλλα/ Skýlla, Σκύλλη/ Skýllē, Lat. Scylla). [German version] [1] Sea monster Sea monster, daughter of Crataeis or Hecate and Phorcys; originally a young woman, transformed by Circe, Amphitrite or Poseidon into a monster (Hom. Od. 12,73-92; Anaxilas fr. 22,4 PCG 2; Verg. Ecl. 6,74-77; Verg. Aen. 3,426-432; Isid. Orig. 11,3,32; Them. Or. 22,279b-d compares the various depictions) out of jealousy when she was wooed by Glaucus [1] (Ov. Met. 13,900-968; 14,1-74; Hyg. Fab. 199). S. lived in a cave opposite Ch…

Antiope

(495 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἀντιόπη; Antiópē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the river god Asopos In epics, the daughter of the river god Asopus (Hom. Od. 11,260 ff.; Apoll. Rhod. 1,735), according to Euripides' Antiope (in Hyg. Fab. 8) daughter of the Theban king Nycteus and Polyxo (Apollod. 3,111; Paus. 2,6,1). Zeus falls in love with her and unites with her in the form of a satyr [1. 857]. For fear of her father, A. flees and marries king Epopeus of Sicyon; according to Paus. 2,6,2 ff. she was kidnapped by him. Her father Nycteus thereupon goes to war against E…

Tilphusa

(100 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Τιλφοῦσα, Τέλφουσα; Tilphoûsa, Télphousa). Boeotian well nymph, who does not allow Apollo to build his oracle temple at her well, and sends him to Delphi so that she herself can preserve her area of influence. Apollo later fills in her well and in its place builds an altar to himself (Hom. H. 3,244-276; 3,375-387). According to Apollod. 3,84 Teiresias meets his death after drinking from her well; his grave was marked for a long time (Str. 9,2,27; 9,2,36). T. is also known in Arcadia (Paus. 8,25,1-3). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography E. Wüst, s. v. T., RE 6 …

Thallo

(69 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Θαλλώ; Thallṓ). One of the Horae, the daughters of Zeus and Themis (Hes. Theog. 901-903; Hes. Op. 74 f.). The assignment of T. to the Horae or to the Charites is controversial, as are the number and names of the Horae (Hyg. Fab. 183; Paus. 9,35,1-4; Poll. 8,106). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography A. Lesky, s. v. Th., RE 5 A, 1214 f.  V. Machaira, s. v. Horai, LIMC 5.1, 502 f.; 5.2, 344-368.

Hesione

(209 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἡσιόνη; Hēsiónē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, wife of  Prometheus (Aesch. PV 558). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Wife of Nauplius Wife of  Nauplius, mother of  Palamedes (Apollod. 2,23). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Progenitor of the Trojan royal house Wife of  Atlas [2], mother of  Electra [3], progenitor through her grandson  Dardanus [1] of the Trojan royal house. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [4] Sister of Priamus Daughter of the Trojan king  Laomedon, who has to deliver her up to a sea …

Deianira

(390 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δηιάνειρα; Dēiáneira). Mythical daughter of king Oeneus of Calydon (Soph. Trach. 6f.) or of Dionysus (Apollod. 1,64; Hyg. Fab. 129) and  Althaea. After the death of her brother  Meleager, D., unlike her sisters, retained her human form (Ov. Met. 8,542ff.; Ant. Lib. 2 after Nicander; Hyg. Fab. 174). The river god Achelous wooed her; then  Heracles, who had heard Meleager singing D.'s praises, also arrived on the scene as a suitor (Pind. Fr. 249aSM; Bacchyl. 5,165ff. SM). Heracles d…

Aethra

(161 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Αἴθρα; Aíthra). Daughter of Pittheus king of Troezen, mother of  Theseus by  Aegeus or Poseidon (Bacchyl. 17,33 ff. SM; Apollod. 3,208; 216; Hyg. Fab. 37). The variant at Paus. 2,33,1 explains the founding of temples of Athena Apaturia on the island Sphaerea by A. Theseus entrusts  Helen to A. who had been abducted by him. When the  Dioscuri release her, A. is taken as a slave and she later reaches Troy with Helen (Hom. Il. 3,144; Alcm. fr. 21 PMGF; Plut. Theseus 16b; Apollod. 3,…

Hippolyte

(238 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἱππολύτη; Hippolýtē). [German version] [1] Amazon, daughter of Ares  Amazon in the myth of Heracles and Theseus, daughter of  Ares and of Otrere. Heracles was ordered by  Eurystheus to rob H. of the belt of Ares (Apoll. Rhod. 2,778ff.; 966ff.; Hyg. Fab. 30; Apollod. 2,98). According to some sources, he kills H. in the process (Eur. HF 407ff.). In conflicting versions of the myth of Theseus, H.,  Antiope [2] or  Glauce [3] appear as the wife of Theseus (Isoc. Or. 12,193; Plut. These…

Philomeleides

(61 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Φιλομηλείδης; Philomēleídēs). Mythical king of the island of Lesbos, who challenged those sailing by to a wrestling match. Odysseus defeated him, according to Hom. Od. 4,343 = 17,134 in the fight, but according to Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 150 by deceit together with Diomedes [1]. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography H. von Geisau, s.v. P., RE 19, 2519f.

Alope

(122 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλόπη; Alópē). Daughter of king  Cercyon of Eleusis (Pherec. FGrH 3 F147), loved by Poseidon, to whom she bears  Hippothoon. She abandons the child; it is suckled by a mare and is found by shepherds, who bring the dispute about the valuable identification marks before the king. He recognizes the marks, locks A. up, and lets her starve. The child is abandoned a second time, again nurtured by the mare and brought up by shepherds. Poseidon transforms A. into a spring (Hyg. Fab. 187; …

Praxithea

(249 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πραξιθέα/ Praxithéa). [German version] [1] Wife of Erechtheus Daughter or granddaughter of Cephisus; on the one hand, she is the wife of Erechtheus (Demaratus FGrH 42 F 4) and mother of several children (amongst them Creusa [2], Oreithyia, Procris); on the other, the wife of Erichthonius [1] and mother of Pandion [1] (Apollod. 3,190; Φρασιθέα/ Phrasithéa Tzetz. Chil. 1,174). According to an oracle, Erechtheus can only win the war against Eumolpus after sacrificing one of his daughters. In his play 'Erechtheus', Euripides allows P. to give detailed …

Galatea

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Γαλατεία; Galateía). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid, daughter of  Nereus and  Doris (Hom. Il. 18,45; Hes. Theog. 250; Apollod. 1,11), whose name probably refers to the milky-white colour, i.e. either to sea-foam or milk in its important role in pasture farming (Lucian 14,3; Eust. 1131,5 ad Hom. Il. 18,42). In Sicily, G. was venerated as the protector of herds (Duris FGrH 76 F 58). The love story between the Cyclops  Polyphemus and G. also originates from Sicily (Prop. 3,2,7f.; Nonnus, Dion. 39,25…

Alcmene

(274 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλκμήνη; Alkmḗnē). Daughter of king Electryon of Mycenae or Tiryns and of Lysidice, Eurydice or Anaxo (Hes.scut.3; Diod. Sic. 4,9,1; Apollod. 2,52). She marries  Amphitryon, who kills Electryon and has to flee with A. The marriage is to be consumated only after Amphitryon has avenged A.'s brother, who died in battle (Apollod. 2,55). He leaves, and Zeus comes in his form to A., tells of the victory and conceives  Hercules with her (Pind. Isthm. 7,5 ff.; Pherec. FGrH 3 F 69; Plaut. …
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