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(246 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[English Version] von Orléans (um 760 im ehemals westgotischen Spanien – 821 Angers oder Le Mans [?]), mußte um 785 seine Heimat verlassen. Am Hof Karls des Großen spielte der hochgebildete Mann bald eine wichtige Rolle. Unter seiner Leitung entstanden zw. 790 und 792 die sog. Libri Carolini gegen die bilderfreundliche Entscheidung des II. Konzils von Nicaea (787). Vor 798 erhielt Th. mehrere Klöster (u.a. Fleury) und das Bistum Orléans übertragen. 800/01 war er mit Karl in Rom, wo ihm Papst Leo II…


(161 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[English Version] von Salzburg (nach 700 in Irland – 27.11.784 Salzburg), kam 743 ins Frankenreich (wohl aus dem Kloster Iona). Seit 745/46 wirkte er in Bayern, 749 Bf. von Salzburg, bestattet in dem von ihm erbauten Dom. Konflikt mit Bonifatius wegen der Weigerung, eine Taufe zu wiederholen, die ein bairischer Priester mit einer grammatisch falschen Formel durchgeführt hatte. Bonifatius schwärzte V. bei Papst Zacharias als Häretiker an wegen seines Glaubens an die Antipoden. Die früher zugewiesene…

Alger of Liège

(108 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (born c. 1060, died before 1145), canon and schoolmaster of the cathedral of Liège; retired to Cluny as a monk in 1121. His De sacramentis corporis et sanguinis Domini, directed against the sacramental teaching of Berengar of Tours, maintains the validity of sacraments administered by Simoniacs (Simony). In canon law, his treatise De misericordia et iustitia was used in Gratian's Decretum ( Corpus Iuris Canonici ). Not content simply to assemble texts bearing on questions of canon law, it seeks to interpret them using the new scholastic method. Wilfried Hartmann Biblio…

Celestine III, Pope

(153 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1191 – Jan 8, 1198). Born in Rome around 1105/1106, Celestine (Giacinto [Hyacinthus] Bobone [later Orsini]) studied in Paris under Peter Abelard (c. 1130) and defended him against the accusations brought forward by Bernard of Clairvaux at the Synod of Sens (1140). In 1143/1144, Celestine II appointed him cardinal-deacon at the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. In the following years, he undertook several journeys as a papal legate (esp. to Spain) and…

Ratherius of Verona

(174 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 890, region of Liège – Apr 25, 974, Namur), a difficult character who led an eventful life. He was three times (931–934, 946–948 and 962–968) bishop of Verona, and once, for a short time (953–955), bishop of Liège. Betweentimes he was in the monasteries of Aulne near Liège and Lobbes, where he was also buried. Among his few extant works, the Praeloquia (written 934–936) is noteworthy. It contains Christian moral teaching for laity and clergy. Of autobiographical interest are the Dialogus confessionalis and the Qualitatis coniectura, in which the old Ratherius p…

Albert of Aachen (Aix)

(134 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] Some textual traditions of the Historia Hierosolymitanae expeditionis (probably contemporary with the events it describes) name an otherwise unknown canonicus Albertus Aquensis ecclesiae as its author. Books 1–6 describe the First Crusade, including the preliminary People's Crusade; books 7–11 recount the history of the Kingdom of Jerusalem down to 1111. Book 12 briefly sketches events from 1…


(194 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] ( Chlodwig; 466 – Nov 27, 511, Paris), Frankish king and the son of Childeric of Tournai. In 481 or 482, he succeeded his father as ruler of one of the Frankish kingdoms; in 486/487, he defeated the Roman “king” Syagrius, who ruled northern Gaul. The victory over the Alemanni (probably 496/497) is associated with the moment of Clovis's baptism: It is highly significant that Clovis was baptized as a Catholic by Bishop Remigius of Reims (probably at…

Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals

(634 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] The so-called Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, forged letters of the popes from Clement I to Melchiades (311–314), constitute the most significant portion of the Pseudo-Isidorian corpus, “the most influential forgery of the Middle Ages” (Fuhrmann); the corpus also includes the false capitularies of Benedictus Levita, a falsifying version of the Collectio Hispana (the so-called Hispana Gallica Augustodunensis, found in Codex Vaticanus latinus 1341, from Autun [9th cent.]), and supposed capitularies of Bishop Angilram of Metz (died 791). The cre…


(1,620 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (Apr 2, 748 – Jan 28, 814, Aachen). According to recent research, Charlemagne was born not in 742 or 747, but only on Apr 2, 748 as the first child of the marriage of Pippin the Younger (died 768) and Bertrada (died 783). He died in Aachen, where he was buried and where his remains still rest today. At least 18 children resulted from his four marriages and at least five concubinates. At his death, however, of his legitimate sons only Louis the Pious, wh…

Bruno the Carthusian (Saint)

(121 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 1030, Cologne– Oct 6, 1101). Around 1056, he became head of the cathedral school in Rheims, where he wrote commentaries on the Psalms and the Letters of Paul. After clashes with Archbishop Manasses I of Rheims, Bruno went in 1082 first to Molesme, then to Grenoble, where the bishop gave him La Chartreuse as the site for a hermitage. The hermits were to devote themselves not only to prayer and asceticism, but also to manual labor and the copying of books. In 1090, pope Urban II summoned Bruno to the curia. He spent his last years as a hermit in Calabria, where he died. Wilfried Ha…


(961 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] From the 3rd to the 5th century, “Franci” was the collective designation for the opponents of Rome on the lower Rhine and around the confluence of the Rhine, Maas, and Schelde rivers. The meaning of the name is unclear (from Frakka, “spear,” or from Indo-Germanic * preg, “bold, courageous”?). During the waning 3rd century, Frankish groups began trickling into northern Gaul. In 355 the Franks destroyed Cologne. From the second half of the 4th century, Franks are attested in high military positions in the Roman army (e.g. Arbog…


(158 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (born c. 460 [467?], died shortly after 533). In 482 Eugippius became a monk at Favianis (Mautern an der Donau). In 488, as Riparian Noricum was being evacuated, he and the other monks went to Italy; in 492/496 he became abbot of the monastery at Castellum Lucullanum near Naples. In addition to the Vita Severini (511), he compiled a selection of excerpts from the works of Augustine in 338 chapters, widely read in the Middle Ages, and a monastic rule. The Vita Severini is our most important source for the last years of Roman rule in what …

Bobbio Monastery

(191 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] in the Trebbia valley (Province of Piacenza), founded in 612 by the Irishman Columbanus the Younger in association with the royal house of Lombardy. Whether Bobbio was indeed, in 628, already exempt from answering to the bishops of Tortona and Piacenza and placed under the direct authority of the pope, is uncertain. From 643 onward, the Benedictine Rule (Benedict, Rule of Saint) played a role ¶ alongside Columbanus's way of life. The golden age of the monastery was in the 8th and 9th centuries; Abbot Wala (834–836) finally established the Regula Benedicti in Bobbio and …

Abbo of Fleury

(123 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (940/945 - Nov 13, 1004) was from 965 on the head of the school and the abbot from 988 on of the monastery of Fleury (St.-Benoît-sur-Loire, east of Orléans). Abbo authored, inter alia, lives of saints and a collection of canons, as well as works of grammar and chronology whose major significance for the scholarship of his time only became evident through the recently published critical editions. In chu…


(163 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] Ever since the Catalogus illustrium virorum Germaniae (1495) of J. Trithemius, Haymo of Halberstadt, bishop from 840 to 853, has been identified as the author of numerous biblical commentaries, printed in volumes 116–118 of Migne's PL. Probably, however, not a few of these commentaries were actually written by Haymo of Auxerre, who headed an important school from the middle through the second half of the 9th century at the Abbey of St. Germain in Auxerre. Today the widely disseminated c…


(205 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (c. 770, Maingau – Mar 14, 840, Seligenstadt), from a noble family, reared in the Fulda monastery (but not a monk), where he was a scribe. From early 796, he was at the court of Charlemagne, where he received the name Beseleel (Bezalel; cf. Exod 35:30ff.). The name refers to his role as court architect. Louis I, the Pious, tried to keep him at court, and, in 815, transferred seven monas…

Leo IX, Pope (Saint)

(296 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (Bruno von Egisheim, born 1002; pope Feb 12, 1049 – Apr 19, 1054). Court chaplain to Conrad II, then bishop of Toul (1026–1051), Leo was appointed pope in December of 1048 by Henry III. After election by the clergy and people of Rome, he was enthroned on Feb 12, 1049. In numerous synods, Leo urged the need for reforming the church (elimination of simony and concubinage). On his journeys in Italy, France, and Germany, he presided over many dedications of churches and translations o…

Nicholas I, Pope (Saint)

(405 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (pontificate Apr 24, 858 – Nov 13, 867), son of a papal official. Ordained subdeacon by Pope Sergius II (844–847), Nicholas rose to ¶ become a deacon under Leo IV, and became the closest adviser of Benedict III (855–858). His election as pope was influenced by Emperor Louis II. Anastasius Bibliothecarius (Anastasius III) soon became his most important adviser. We are exceptionally well informed about this pope’s actions and aims, since about 170 letters by him, some very extensive, have survived, and his vita in the Liber pontificalis also provide…

Constantine, Donation of

(420 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] In the canon law collections of the High Middle Ages, but also already in the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals, a forgery from the middle of the 9th century, the text of an extensive document is transmitted in which Emperor Constantine gives Pope Silvester I the primacy over all churches as well as a number of imperial rights and possessions. It was above all dominion over Rome and the western half of the Roman Empire, but also imperial …

Rabanus Maurus

(326 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, Wilfried
[German Version] (Hrabanus; c. 780, Mainz – Feb 4, 856, Winkel near Mainz), came from a noble family in the mid-Rhine area. He lived as a monk in the monastery at Fulda, was consecrated deacon in 801, studied for a brief period under Alcuin in Tours from 800, then taught in Fulda, was consecrated priest in 814, became abbot of Fulda in 822, resigned as abbot in 842 after Emperor Lothar I was defeated by Louis the German and Charles the Bald, then was elevated to ¶ archbishop of Mainz in 847 by Louis the German. As abbot of Fulda, Rabanus not only composed numerous poems, letters, …
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