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Schnitzler, Arthur

(178 words)

Author(s): Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel
[German Version] (May 15, 1862, Vienna – Oct 21, 1931, Vienna), came from a cultured middle-class Jewish family. After studying medicine, he found his first literary inspiration in the Young Vienna group, whose spokesman was Hermann Bahr, but he dissociated himself from the group’s Impressionistic literature and decadence. In Anatol (1893; ET: Anatol, 1982), his first work, he created the stock character of the “frivolous melancholic,” which was taken as the author’s self-portrait. The protagonist’s inability to make decisions and communicate, wh…

Wagner, Richard

(287 words)

Author(s): Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel
[German Version] (May 22, 1813, Leipzig – Feb 13, 1883, Venice). After studying primarily as an autodidact, holding various positions as a conductor, and failing in an attempt to establish himself in Paris as an opera composer, in 1842 Wagner was appointed court conductor in Dresden. His participation in the 1848 Revolution forced him to take refuge in Switzerland. In 1864 King Ludwig II of Bavaria called Wagner to Munich and backed the production of his works. In 1872 Wagner moved to Bayreuth, where he built his Bühnenfestspielhaus (“festival theater”) with the support of a circl…

Clergy in Literature

(819 words)

Author(s): Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel
[German Version] In the 18th century, the clergyman (Clergy) became a literary figure when literature freed itself from theology and dealt with the social significance of religion. In the process, older literary models, such as those of the hermit and the martyr, merged with the modern literary model of the clergy. From the hermits, the clergy adopted the motif of the ascetic and contemplative distance from the world, but also the function of a counterpart mediat…


(4,743 words)

Author(s): Kober, Michael | Großhans, Hans-Peter | Kitschen , Friederike | Hartwich, Wolf-Daniel | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] I. Philosophy Realism in a given area B means the ontological thesis that names or terms used in a theory of B refer to things that exist independently of human thought. For example, in natural realism the existence of stones, trees, and ¶ tables is assumed; in scientific realism, that of electrons, force fields, and quarks (see V below); in mathematical realism, that of numbers and quantities; or in ethical realism, that of moral values. Critics of realism object, for example, that moral values are an expression of value…

Jesus Christ

(19,624 words)

Author(s): Roloff, Jürgen | Pokorný, Petr | Köpf, Ulrich | Lathrop, Gordon W. | Krötke, Wolf | Et al.
[German Version] I. Name and Titles – II. Jesus Christ in the History of Christianity – III. Jesus Christ in Other Religions – IV. Jesus Christ in Jewish Perspective – V. Jesus Christ in Islamic Perspective – VI. Jesus Christ in Art I. Name and Titles 1. Jesus of Nazareth a. Terminology The appellation Jesus Christ signals a significant tension regarding the figure in question. Although generally understood as a double name, it originated as a fusion of two heterogeneous elements: the theophoric personal name Joshua/Jeshua (Heb. “the Lord help…


(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old …