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Geibel, Johannes

(160 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (Apr 1, 1776, Hanau – Jul 25, 1853, Lübeck), influential revival preacher and reformer in Lübeck, who became doctor of theology in Berlin in 1817. Turning from a devout Enlightenment (II, 4.c) to a christocentric theology of religious experience and revelation (emphasis on grace, faith, and rebirth from 1807 on) – and under the influence of F.D.E. Schleiermacher, F.H. Jacobi, and G. Menke…

Amphilochius of Iconium

(174 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (c. 340/345–400). Amphilochius was the cousin of Gregory of Nazianzus and a student of Libanius. After practicing law in Constantinople c. 365–371, he became an ascetic. In the fall of 373, he became metropolitan of the new ecclesiastical province of …

Council of Brethren

(797 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] ( Bruderrat), designation for the leadership bodies of the Confessing Church ( Bekennende Kirche) at all levels. At first prevalent in especially the (pietistic) community movement ( Gemeinschaftsbewegung), after 1933 it emanated from the emphasis on collegiality and from the ideal of a new kind of “collegial” leadership in opposition to the Führer-principle. I. From Oct 20, 1933, the execut…

German Evangelical Church

(673 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (Deutsche Evangelische Kirche, DEK). In the history of the attempts to replace or modify the structure of German Protestantism determined by regional churches, the time after 1933 offered a paradigm of fundamental significance. The idea, propagated to a degree from the 19th century onward, of a national church acquired new relevance following the National Socialist overthrow of the state (National Socialism), above all through corresponding demands of the Deutsche Christen in view…

Nectarius of Constantinople

(214 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] (born probably in Tarsus, died 397). As a member of the political elite in Constantinople, Nectarius was appointed bishop of the capital by Theodosius I after the retirement of Gregory of Nazianzus, although he was a layman and probably not even baptized. This showed that he was trusted to overcome the division in the church there. The scant sources make it difficult to assess his historical importance. He resolved the crisis of the Council of Constantinople (IV, 1) as its preside…

Confessing Church

(2,616 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] I. Background – II. Establishment – III. Fundamental Difference: Two Types – IV. Schism in the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche; BK). “Bekennende Kirche” was the self-designa…

Pneumatomachi

(872 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] The Pneumatomachi, a group found primarily in Asia Minor, had a traditional binitarian doctrine of God, rejecting the divinity of the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit). They were an outgrowth of the “middle way” that evolved after 358, made up of followers of Origen and Eusebius. Within this new group of Homoiousians, some opposed the consubstantiali…

Reichskirche

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] The German term Reichskirche (“imperial church”), scarcely found in historical sources, denotes the post-Constantinian (Constantine the Great) synthesis of civil and ecclesiastical sovereignty in the “Roman Empire,” whose claim of universal dominion made it different from other states. Only in this sense does the term differ from analogous realities in other territories, called state churches, national churches, or regional churches. I. Imperium Romanum A constitutive element of the Roman imperial church was its attachment to the figure of th…

Lübeck, Bishopric

(857 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] Lübeck's origins go back to the German colonization and Christianization of Slavic Vagria/East Holstein under Henry the Lion, after the failed establishment of the bishopric of Oldenburg c. 972–983 and the destruction of the seat of the Slavic principality at Liubice (Old Lübeck). The German commercial town was founded in 1159 and the bishopric was moved there in 1160; a cathedral, several mo…

Confessing Synods,

(666 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] the supreme administrative organs of the Confessing Church (Bekennende Kirche), which legitimized the creation of alternative church structures since the fall of 1934.…

Harnack

(1,413 words)

Author(s): Schröder, Bernd | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter
[German Version] 1. Theodosius Andreas (Jan 3, 1817, St. Petersburg – Sep 23, 1889, Tartu [Ger. Dorpat], Estonia). Harnack studied at Dorpat fro…

Münster

(1,677 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Kampmann, Jïrgen
[German Version] I. City and Bishopric – II. University I. City and Bishopric As part of his missionary efforts in the southern part of West Saxony, in 793/795 Ludger established a fortified monastery ( monasterium; hence the name Münster since the 12th cent.) within the older town of Mimigernaford, …

Evangelical Church in Germany

(4,198 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Schloz, Rüdiger
[German Version] I. History, Constitution, and Structure – II. Works and Institutions (EKD; Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland) I. History, Constitution, and Structure To an increasing degree, the federalistically determined history of German Protestantism in the 20th century has been stamped by the growing responsibility of the general membership of the unified agency of the EKD and its predecessor institutions. 1. Founding, 1945–1948 Since the 19th century, from the Eisenach Conference of 1852 to the Union of German …

United Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Germany (VELKD)

(1,407 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Christoph, Joachim E.
[German Version] I. History This institution, founded in 1948 (a German Federal Church with eight member churches) has a prehistory rooted in the 19th century which presupposes the confessional division of German Protestantism from 1529 to 1648. It is based on the axiom that, according to ¶ CA 7, all churches that follow the Lutheran confessional documents form a single church. This also results in fellowship in the Lutheran World Federation. 1. Because of a lack of precision in the terms “confession” and “Lutheran,” and the persistency of the Landeskirchen model, efforts for union …

Germany

(25,084 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brenner, Beatus | Dehn, Ulrich | Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History and Denominations – III. Non-Christian Religions – IV. Society, Culture, Religion, and the Churches in the Present I. General 1. Name The term Germany ( Deutschland) has been shaped by the history of the area it denotes. From the beginnings until 1945 it was closely associated with the German or Holy Roman Empire, so that it underwent many transformations. Since 1949 it has referred primarily to the Federal Republic of Germany, which since the joining of the German Democratic…

Synod

(3,747 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brandt, Reinhard | Germann, Michael | Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] I. History As it developed in the Early Church and the Middle Ages, the term synod (from Gk σύνοδος/ sýnodos, “assembly, being together on the way”) cannot be separated from the term council. Only in 19th- and 20th-century Protestantism is a separate treatment warranted; in that context – with roots going back to the 16th century – the synod represents a new constitutional phenomenon (Church polity: IV, 2; V, 1.c). Its antecedents include medieval diocesan synods (as extensions of the provincial syn…

Presbyter/Presbytery

(3,654 words)

Author(s): Karrer, Martin | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Lindner, Herbert | Germann, Michael
[German Version] I. New Testament Social structures that entrusted older individuals with functions on behalf of the community were widespread in the ancient Mediterranean world. In the memory of Israel, they were particularly important in the early history of the people (Num 11– 1 Sam 30:26ff.; 2 Sam 2:4; 12:17; Elders in the Old Testament). Their entrustment with local and regional judicial functions continued (reflected in Deut 19:12; cf. 11QT XLII 13f.) albeit often in diminished form. In the Ne…

Bishop

(5,831 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Rees, Wilhelm | Plank, Peter | de Wall, Heinrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics and Canon Law – IV. Missiology I. New Testament The NT contains no evidence of the episcopate in the traditional Catholic sense (a single bishop at the apex of a hierarchical clerical ministry functioning as head of a Christian community), but it does use the word ἐπίσκοπος ( epískopos; the etymological source of bishop) for functionaries and officials exercising oversight in the community (Acts 20:28; Phil 1:1; 1 Tim 3:1–7; Tit 1:7–9). For the primitive church, it is therefore better ¶ to speak of episkopoi rathe…

Laity

(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…

Christology

(26,944 words)

Author(s): Karrer, Martin | Williams, Rowan D. | Hauschild, Wolf Dieter | Flogaus, Reinhard | Gunton, Colin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Primitive Christianity – II. History of Doctrine – III. Dogmatics – IV. Forms of Extra-ecclesial Christology I. Primitive Christianity 1. History of research and preliminary questions a.  The term Christology, which originated in the early 17th century, was coined for systematic reflection concerning Jesus Christ. Initially, conceptions and Christologies dealing with the salvation history of the whole Bible beginning with the Old Testament were as highly valued as the New Testament (cf. e.g. G.F. Händel's Messiah). NT Christology went its own way…
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