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(324 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
[German Version] (Heb., orig. qevutza, “group,” later qibbuz, “community”). The first Jewish communal settlement was established in 1909 near Deganya on the shore of the Sea of Galilee by predominantly Russian immigrants. The origins of the kibbutz movement lie in socialism or communism as well as in Zionism. The kibbutz settlements were an important precondition for the founding of the state of Israel. The 1930s also witnessed the rise of a religious kibbutz movement, to which approx. 6% of all kibbut…

Castaneda, Carlos

(267 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1931, São Paulo, Brazil, or Dec 25, 1925, Cajamarca, Peru – Apr 27, 1998, Westwood, CA), cultural anthropologist, writer, and father of the American New Age movement – emigrated to the USA in 1951. Little is known of his background and life; throughout his lifetime he shunned publicity. He studied anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles, receiving his Ph.D. in 1973. In 1968 he published his first work, the novel The Teachings of Don Juan; it and the nine works that followed became best-sellers. They dealt with dreams, rites…

Civil Religion

(1,588 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
Determination of the Concept 1. Civil religion denotes a system of linguistic formulae (metaphors, citations, slogans), symbols, rituals, and myths, in representative public life and in politics, that defines the meaning and demarcation of a society vis-à-vis the state, legitimates its goals, works by bestowing meaning and promoting community, familiarizes the population with the values and basic attitudes it embodies, and mobilizes strength and energy for the realization of these goals. The language …


(3,688 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
Definition and Overview 1. ‘Society’ denotes a comprehensive social connection, a holistic system of human life in common, signed by extensive autarchy. As a concept, society is never independent of the concrete historical framework-conditions in which it is being developed. Historically, it is a new concept that became possible only as the unity of state and society—and their close connection with religion—lost its self-evidence: a development that begins to materialize in Europe only with the beg…


(432 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
The golem (Hebr., ‘unformed mass’), a figure from Jewish folk mythology, is an artificial anthropoid, whose magical creation is attributed in most literary sources to historical Rabbi Loew (c. 1512–1609). The origin of the legend of the golem is difficult to trace. Its first mentions (in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries) refer to a golem narrative said to date from the fourth century BCE. The key setting of the presentation of the golem is most often a situation of need or persecution among …

Charismatic Movement

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Haydt, Claudia
1. Charismatic movement is a collective concept for Christian missionary movements that legitimate and document their task of persons' awakening through what are called ‘gifts of the Spirit’ (Gk., charismata; Charisma), such as healing and ‘speaking in tongues’ (glossolalia). These movements have some 200 million members worldwide and stand in the tradition of the Pentecostal and awakening movements. Historical Development 2. What is understood today as the charismatic movement in the more proper sense sprang up in the 1960s in the United States. The fou…