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State Enterprises

(1,310 words)

Author(s): Hebel, Jutta
Since the founding of the PRC, the state sector developed into the most important instrument for directing and controlling the economy, the state apparatus, and the population. The development of the USSR and experiences in the CCP-controlled areas had served as political models for this process. In the early years between 1949 and 1952 the economic significance of the socialist economy was at about one-fourth of the production value and still small in comparison with its strategic role (electri…


(2,119 words)

Author(s): Hebel, Jutta
In traditional China the issue of labor was characterized by a high concentration of property owing to the agrarian character of the country. The marginal non-agrarian sector consisted of handicrafts, trade and a largely underdeveloped industry. There were exceptions to this rule in the coastal regions where since the end of the 19th century large areas were in foreign hands. Industrial jobs were generally scarce in the face of a surplus of labor. Immediately after the founding of the People's Republic an agrarian reform was launched, which was aimed at overcoming th…

Danwei (Work Unit)

(966 words)

Author(s): Hebel, Jutta
Danwei constitute the basic organizational units in the economic, political, social and administrative spheres of China's urban areas. Despite general agreement on their importance as the basic unit of Chinese society, their origin, function, and development are controversial. Danwei literally means "unit," in the sense of a unit of measurement or a unit of organization. As units of social organization, danwei can be classified according to their function and their hierarchical status. With regard to the former, danwei are legal persons which employ workers ( yongren danwei). The…