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(151 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] The Barnabites were regular clerics (originally sons) of St. Paul (CRSP), later named after the mother-house of St. Barnabas in Milan, where the order was established in 1530. Its founders were Antonius Maria Zaccaria, an advocate of Catholic reform in Lombardy and Venetia, Bartholomew Ferrari and Jacob Morigia. The purpose of the order was to …

Mercy, Religious Societies of

(91 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] In addition to the Brothers and Sisters of Mercy (Mercy, Brothers and Sisters of), numerous religious orders and congregations of the Catholic Church include “mercy” in their official name, as for instance the Congregation of the Priests of Mercy (founded in Lyon in 1808 on the model of the Sulpicians, for youth education, mission, and other purposes) or the Religieuses de Notre-Dame-de-la-Miséricorde (est. in Aix-en-Provence in 1633 for the education of poor girls). Manfred Heim Bibliography DIP VII, 1983, 791–793 AnPont 1996, 1439, 1463, 1465f.


(220 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] belong to the religious societies of mercy, more precisely to the Sisters of Mercy (Brothers and Sisters of Mercy). The Congregation of the Merciful Sisters of St. Charles Borromeo was established in 1652 in Nancy for the care of the sick and for education (1663 adoption of the rule of St. Francis de Sales for visit…


(156 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] (Cellites), an order of lay brothers named after St. Alexios of Edessa, who care for the sick and bury the dead (Lat. cella, grave); they originated before the 14th century. The Alexians, who are also called the Merciful (or Poor) Brothers (Mercy, Brothers and Sisters of), were active primarily in Flanders and the Lower Rhine; in 1472, they accepted the Augustinian Rule (Augustine, Rule of). Since 1462, the Alexians of …


(109 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] The order of the Annunciates takes its name from the Annunciation of Mary (Luke 1:26–28). A chivalric order established in 1364 as the Order of the Collar by Amadeus VI of Savoy, it was known after 1518 as the Order of the Collar and the Annunziata. Women's orders of strict contemplatives include the Annunciates of Lombardy (founded in Pavia in …

Mercy, Brothers and Sisters of

(264 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] Brothers and Sisters of Mercy are clerical communities dedicated to the care of the sick (also Alexians, Franciscan brothers, et al.): 1. Brother Hospitallers of St. John of God ( Ordo Hospitalarius), established in 1571 as an independent order (following the Augustinian rule) from an association founded in 1540 by St. John of God in Granada; 2. Brothers of Mercy of St. Rochus (until 1840), founded in Vilnius in 1713 for the care and burial of plague victims; 3. Brothers of our Lady of Mercy, established in Mal…

Missionaries of the Precious Blood

(105 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] The Missionaries of the Precious Blood (CPPS), founded in 1815 by St. Gaspar del Bufalo with the support of Pius VII, were recognized by the Holy See in 1841 as a congregation of secular priests dedicated to missionary and pastoral work; today they are a Society of the Apostolic Life. There is also a worldwide network of congregations for women bearing the same name, including the (Missionary) Sisters of the Precious Blood founded at Mariannhill, South Africa, in the 19th century. Manfred Heim Bibliography Heimbucher 2, 611–613 DIP V, 1978, 1457–1460, 1594f.; 7, 198…

Agnes, Sisters of

(177 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] Communities of the order: 1. Augustinian Sisters, of Dordrecht. Founded according to tradition in 1326, they belonged from 1427 onward to the Windesheim Congregation (regulated Augustinian choristers) and, from the end of the 15th century, called themselves “Sisters of St. Agnes” after their church, dedicated to St. Agnes; they were disbanded in 1572. 2. Sisters of St. Agnes: The Sœurs de St. Agnès, founded in 1645 in Arras by Jeanne Biscot to rear and educate orphans, are spiritually influenced by …


(249 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred
[German Version] Augustinians of the Assumption (Lat. assumptio) of Mary (Mariology) into the heavens ( Congrégation des Augustins de l'Assomption). The congregation named after the Congrégation de l'Assomption in Nîmes, the first chapter, was founded in 1845 by Émanuel d'Alzon, and approved by the pope in 1864. In the spirit of the founder, the community, which includes priests and laypersons, developed intensi…


(541 words)

Author(s): Schmid, Anne | Heim, Manfred
[German Version] I. Medieval Abbreviations – II. Catholic Orders I. Medieval Abbreviations Medieval abbreviations are based on the principles of suspension and contraction developed in antiquity (epigraphical, juridical-administrative abbreviations, sacred names). In the 6th–7th/9th centuries, the book scripts that developed variously by region (Printing and publishing) developed different traditi…


(309 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred (München) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München)
[English version] [1] Bf. von Rom 352-366 Röm. Papst 352-366. L.' Pontifikat war belastet durch den schweren Konflikt um den Arianismus. Kaiser Constantius II. verbannte L. 355 nach Beroia, als dieser seine Unterstützung für den verdammten arianerfeindlichen Bischof Athanasios von Alexandreia in Mailand nicht widerrief; daraufhin ließ sich Felix zum Gegen-Bischof (Felix [5] II.) bestellen und weihen. Die Qual des Exils, die vier bei Hilarius von Poitiers überlieferte Briefe vom Frühjahr 357 widerspiege…


(356 words)

Author(s): Heim, Manfred (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] Roman pope 352-377 Roman pope 352-366. L.'s pontificate was burdened by the difficult dispute over Arianism. Emperor Constantius II banished L. to Beroea in 355, because he would not recant in Milan his support for the condemned bishop Athanasius of Alexandria, who was hostile to Arianism, whereupon Felix had himself appointed and ordained counter-bishop ( Felix [5] II.). The anguish of exile, reflected by the four letters of the spring of 357 recorded by Hilarius of Poitiers led…


(362 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basle) | Heim, Manfred (Munich)
[German version] [1] Symbol of the star of Caesar In Latin antiquity, L. refers primarily to the morning star (Greek φωσφόρος/ phōsphóros or ἑωσφόρος/ heōsphóros; Venus; Planets), and in a secondary sense L. also characterizes divine figures. Roman mythology interprets L. as the star of deified Caesar. In Christianity, L. loses the positive connotation: although entirely with reference to 2 Cor 4:6, 2 Petr 1:19 and Apc. 2:28, L. is compared to Christ and therefore at times used as a baptismal name, as a translation of Is. 14:12 (the fallen morning star - heōsphóros: LXX, lucifer: Vulgate)…


(320 words)

Author(s): Kundert, Lukas (Basel) | Heim, Manfred (München)
[English version] [1] Symbol für Stern Caesars bis christl. Satan L. bezeichnet in der lat. Ant. primär den Morgenstern (griech. φωσφόρος/ phōsphóros oder ἑωσφόρος/ heōsphóros; Venus; Planeten), sekundär kennzeichnet L. Göttergestalten. Die röm. Mythologie deutet L. als Stern des vergöttlichten Caesar. Die durchwegs positive Konnotation verliert L. im Christentum: Zwar wird er in Anlehnung an 2 Kor 4,6, 2 Petr 1,19 und Apk 2,28 mit Christus verglichen und deswegen bisweilen als Taufname verwendet, doch als Übers. von Jes 14,12 (der gefallene Morgenstern - heōsphóros: LXX, lucife…