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Marriage

(3,409 words)

Author(s): Westbrook, Raymond (Baltimore) | Wagner-Hasel, Beate (Darmstadt) | Treggiari, Susan (Stanford) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Marriage in the Ancient Orient was always potentially polygamous, but in most cases it was monogamous in practice. Only kings had more than two wives. Marriage to members of inferior social groups was just as valid as marriage between them. Marriage between close relatives was basically forbidden, except between half-brothers and half-sisters who shared a father. A marriage could be concluded in any of four ways: 1) by a contract between the groom or his parents and…

Priscilla

(59 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] (Πρίσκιλλα/ Prískilla, Πρίσκα/ Príska). P., together with Montanus and Maximilla [2], founded Montanism, a Christian revivalist movement, in the 2nd cent. AD (frr. of her oracles in Tertullianus [2], De resurrectione 11,2 and De exhortatione castitatis 10,5). Tradition confuses her with Quintilla. Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) Bibliography C. Trevett, Montanism. Gender, Authority and the New Prophecy, 1996, see Index.

Muratorian Fragment

(84 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] The MF, named after its discoverer, L.A. Muratori (1672-1750), is the oldest existing catalogue of the Christian canon (Canon V.). The text, probably originally in Greek, has only been preserved in fragments of the Latin translation and was probably written around the year 200 in Rome. Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) Bibliography Bibliography: W. Schneemelcher, Neutestamentliche Apokryphen, vol. 1: Evangelien, 61990, 27-29 (bibliography)  J.-D. Kaestli, La place du Fragment de Muratori dans l'histoire du canon, in: Cristianesimo nella Storia 15, 1994, 609-634.

Lot, election by

(2,381 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Nollé, Johannes (Munich) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
(Greek κλῆρος/ klêros , Lat. sors). I. Political [German version] A. Greece The lot was used especially in democracies, but not only in such, as a means to distribute office among those who were equally eligible, rather than appointing the best candidate under the circumstances. For Athens, the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia states that Solon introduced the selection of the archons by lot from a short list of pre-selected candidates ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 8,1; but differing: Aristot. Pol. 2,1273b 35-1274a 3; 1274a 16-17; 3,1281b 25-34). In the…

Paganus

(510 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] The Latin adjective paganus (variation paganicus), derived from pagus ('village', 'district') means 'rustic', 'rural', used as a noun 'farmer', 'villager'; it is only rarely used in a figurative sense ('countrified', 'illiterate') (Sidon. Epist. 8,16,3). Beginning in the 1st cent. AD it took on the meaning derived from military jargon of 'not belonging to the troop', 'set apart', 'outsider', 'non-soldier', 'civilian', 'citizen'. This meaning is found in Christian Latin literature only in Tertullian (De pallio 4); in De corona 11 he associates paganus with the …

Paul, Acts of

(149 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] The Acts of Paul, written around 190 and preserved only in fragmentary form (New Testament Apocrypha), describe in a novelistic style the work of Paul [II 2] and his follower Thecla, and, for the first time, the martyrdom of Paul (beheading). Its main doctrinal emphases are the resurrection and asceticism. Thecla's independent teaching and work (self-baptism, ch. 34) brought the Acts of Paul into disrepute (the Acts of Paul are “decidedly feminist”: A. Harnack [1]): By the time of…

Leisure

(1,560 words)

Author(s): Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Definition The terms σχολή ( scholḗ; Lat . schola, scola) and otium, which had equivalent meanings in Greek and Latin, have a wide spectrum of meaning; they could indicate any form of free time not used for labour or other occupations, but also the time dedicated to people or certain activities. From a sociological point of view, the term provides clear insights into essential elements of the Graeco-Roman social order and of social norms, precisely because of the possibility of comparing differing mentalities. Gehrke, Hans-Joachim (Freiburg) [German version] II. Gr…

Iohannes

(7,268 words)

Author(s): Frey, Jörg (Stuttgart) | Domhardt, Yvonne (Zürich) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰωάννης; Iōánnēs). Well-known persons i.a.: I. [1] the Evangelist, I. [4] Chrysostomos, bishop of Constantinople and Homilet, I. [18] Malalas, author of the world chronicle, I. [25] of Gaza, rhetor and poet, I. [33] of Damascus, the theologian, I. [39] Baptistes. [1] I. the Evangelist [German version] A. Tradition and criticism According to the inscriptions, the author of a  Gospel (Jo), of three letters and the Apocalypse in the NT is called I. (= J.; the name appears only in Apc. 1:1; 1:4; 1:9; 22:8). Since the end of the 2nd cent. (Iren. adv…

Heretics, controversy about their baptism

(183 words)

Author(s): Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] As is evident in  Tertullianus [2] (De baptismo 15), the African Church only recognized its own  baptism. Christians baptized by separate groups ( Heresy I;  Schism) were rebaptized when changing to the mainstream Church. Under bishop  Cyprianus [2], a conflict arose in Carthage with the Roman bishop  Stephanus [6] (254-257) (known to historiography as the controversy about the ‘baptism of heretics’) because Rome accepted the baptisms performed by separate groups (notably the Nova…

Monotheism

(1,572 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] I. Concept Monotheism - the belief in the existence of a single god, in contrast to polytheism and henotheism (worship of a single god while still recognizing other gods) - is a concept from the early modern era, probably first evident in the Cambridge Platonist H. More [1] (Christian-apologetic dissociation from pagan forms of religion; argument defending the trinitarian concept of God). Monotheism has been viewed both from an evolutionary perspective as a final stage of development and as an original form of religion that later degenerated…
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