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Ḳawāʿid Fiḳhiyya

(1,584 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), legal principles, legal maxims, general legal rules (sing. ḳāʿida fiḳhiyya ). These are mad̲h̲hab internal legal guidelines that are applicable to a number of particular cases in various fields of the law, whereby the legal determinations ( aḥkām ) of these cases can be derived from these principles. They reflect the logic of a school’s legal reasoning and thus impart a “scaffolding” to the “case-law” ( furūʿ ). Historically, general rules can be found already strewn throughout early furūʿ works. They were first collected by Ḥanafīs like Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Kark̲h̲ī (d. …


(3,787 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), lit. “creating an image, or an illusion ( k̲h̲ayāl )” a technical term with various meanings but all broadly in the field of hermeneutics. It occurs in (a) theory of imagery, (b) philosophical poetics, (c) Ḳurʾānic exegesis, and (d) among rhetorical figures. Whether any or all of these usages have a common root remains to be seen. It should be noted that, like any maṣdar , tak̲h̲yīl can also act as a verbal noun of the passive. Since in everyday language the verb was predominantly used in the passive ( k̲h̲uyyila ilayhi “an illusion was…

ʿUrwa b. Ud̲h̲ayna

(842 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a laḳab , his father’s name being Yaḥyā), Abū ʿĀmir al-Kinānī al-Layt̲h̲ī, Arab poet from Medina (fl. later 1st/7th century into the early 2nd/8th century) famous for his love poetry ( g̲h̲azal), but also billed as a traditionist and legal scholar; Mālik [ q.v.] is said to have transmitted from him (Ibn Abī Ḥātim, al-Ḏj̲arḥ wa ’l-taʿdīl , Ḥaydarābād 1360, iii/1, 396; al-Buk̲h̲ārī, al-Taʾrīk̲h̲ al-kabīr , Ḥaydarābād 1941-64, iv, 33; al-D̲h̲ahabī, Mīzān al-iʿtidāl , ed. ʿA.M. al-Bid̲j̲āwī, Cairo n.d., iii, 63 [ ṣadūḳ ], cf. also Ibn Ḳutayba, S̲h̲iʿr , 580 [ t̲h̲iḳa


(595 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad (d. 416/1025), Arab poet. His nisba points to the Tihāma [ q.v.], the coastal plain on the Red Sea coast of Arabia, or to Mecca, which is sometimes synecdochically called “Tihāma”. Ibn K̲h̲allikān (iii, 381) admits his ignorance as to which of these two locations is intended. He is said to have come from the lower classes ( min al-sūḳa , al-Bāk̲h̲arzī, i, 188-9). The poet spent most of his life in Syria, where he attached himself in particular to the D̲j̲arrāḥids [ q.v.], who tried, with limited success, to consolidate their little principality in Pal…


(1,398 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
, Abū YaʿḲūb yūsuf b. Abī Bakr b. Muḥammad al-K̲h̲wārazmī Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn, influential rhetorician writing in Arabic. He was born in K̲h̲wārazm on 3 D̲j̲umādā I, 555/11 May 1160 according to most sources, or in the year 554, according to his contemporary Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād , ed. Rifāʿī, xx, 59). He died toward the end of Rad̲j̲ab 626/mid-June 1229 in Ḳaryat al-Kindī near Almālig̲h̲ in Farg̲h̲āna. In spite of his fame already during his lifetime, the circumstances of his life are shrouded in obscurity—a fact most likely …


(451 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Muṭahhar al-ʿAdawī, Arab philologist, minor poet and anthologist. As poetic occurrences of his nisba and the town to which it refers show (Yāḳūt, Buldān, Beirut 1376/1957, iii, 363a, 1. 4; and Irs̲h̲ād , Cairo n.d., xvii, 241, 1. 5), the name-form “al-Sumaysāṭī, given in Flügel’s ed. of the Fihrist and, as an option, by Brockelmann, GAL S I, 251, should be discarded. Sumaysāṭ and S̲h̲ims̲h̲āṭ refer to two different places (Yāḳūt, Buldān, s.w., and cf. Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliphate , 116-17 (S̲h̲ims̲h̲āṭ), 108 (…


(1,034 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), “companion”, a term with various senses in Islamic usage. Formally it is an active participle of the transitive verb ṣaḥiba yaṣḥabu “to associate with”, but semantically a pure noun; it thus cannot govern an object in the accusative. The most common plural is aṣḥāb , of which the double plural ( d̲j̲amʿ al-d̲j̲amʿ ) aṣāḥīb is given in the dictionaries, while its “diminutive of the plural” ( taṣg̲h̲īr al-d̲j̲amʿ ) usayḥāb is attested (Wensinck, Concordance , s.v.). Other plurals include ṣaḥb (a collective noun), ṣiḥāb and ṣuḥbān , the verbal nouns ṣuḥba and ṣaḥāba


(1,946 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), a rhetorical figure mostly translated “antithesis” and consisting in the inclusion, in a verse or colon, of words of opposite meaning, as in ḥulamāʾu fi ’l-nādī id̲h̲ā mā d̲j̲iʾtahumd̲j̲uhalāʾu yawma ʿad̲j̲ād̲j̲at in wa-liḳāʾi “restrained in the tribal council, when you come to them,—unrestrained on the day of a dust-cloud and battle” (Zuhayr). Synonymous terms are muṭābaḳa and, especially in earlier theorists, muṭābaḳ (from ṭābaḳtu bayna ’l-s̲h̲ayʾayn “I made the two things congruent” [see Ibn al-Muʿtazz, Badīʿ, 36]). From the same root one also finds taṭbīḳ

Saʿīd b. Ḥumayd

(658 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
b. Saʿīd al-Kātib , Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān, ʿAbbāsid scribe, epistolographer and poet. His exact dates are unknown, but he was probably born in the last years of the 3rd century A.H. and died after 257/871 (or 260/874), the year of Faḍl al-S̲h̲āʿira’s death [ q.v. in Suppl.]. His family came from the lower Persian nobility—he himself is sometimes called al-dihḳān —and he claimed royal Persian descent. He seems to have held various lower provincial offices, before stepping into the limelight as the kātib of Aḥmad b. al-K̲h̲aṣīb, vizier to al-Muntaṣir (r. 247-8/861-2 [ q.v.]), for whom he drew up the ba…


(2,716 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
In Arabic literature. The rose is easily the most sung flower in Arabic poetry. Its natural place is in flower, garden and spring poetry ( zahriyyāt , rawḍiyyāt and rabīʿiyyāt ), but the rose also figures prominently in the setting of wine poetry ( k̲h̲amriyyāt ), which is actually the place of origin for flower poems. Abū Nuwās (d. ca. 198/813 [ q.v.]) still keeps the bacchic framework of his flower descriptions, and it may have been ʿAlī b. al-Ḏj̲ahm (d. 249/863 [ q.v.]) who first wrote pure floral pieces, all of them devoted to the rose (see Schoeler 71-2, 128). Poetic desc…


(3,554 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), a technical term for a rhetorical figure (alternative names, all from the same root, are d̲j̲inās [very common], mud̲j̲ānasa , mud̲j̲ānas , and tad̲j̲ānus ), variously translated as paronomasia, pun, homonymy, and alliteration. The last two terms, however, do not cover all the types that have traditionally been subsumed under this heading, while “pun” has also been used to render tawriya [ q.v.], the difference being that tawriya is a one-term pun ( double entendre). A general definition of tad̲j̲nīs would be: a pair of utterances (mostly, but no…

al-S̲h̲arḳī b. al-Ḳuṭāmī

(669 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(d. ca. 150/767, according to Sezgin, GAS, viii, 115; ca. 155/772, according to al-Ziriklī, Aʿlām 3, ix, 139), transmitter of ancient Arabic poetry and ak̲h̲bār , quoted also for lexicographical, genealogical, geographical, and historical data. There is some fluctuation in the sources between al-S̲h̲arḳī and S̲h̲arḳī as well as between al-Ḳuṭāmī ¶ and Ḳuṭāmī; in addition, there is some discussion whether Ḳaṭāmī is the correct reading. The form given here has the best authority. Both names are laḳabs , his real name being al-Walīd b. al-Ḥusayn, with the kunya


(2,515 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), “chest, breast, bosom” (pl. ṣudūr ), a peculiarly Arabic word, not attested in other Semitic languages, except as a borrowing from Arabic. Its semantic connection with other derivatives of the root ṣ-d-r within Arabic is unclear; it may be derived from the basic notion of the verb ṣadara , i.e. “to come up, move upward and outward, from the waterhole” (opposite: warada ). Most concretely, it refers to the chest as part of the body, and as such is dealt with in the ¶ lexicographical monographs on the human body called Ḵh̲alḳ al-insān (al-Aṣmaʿī, 214-18; T̲h̲āb…

Waḥs̲h̲ī (a.) and Ḥūs̲h̲ī

(671 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.), synonymous terms in literary criticism denoting words that are uncouth and jarring to the ear due to their being archaic and/or Bedouinic (often including the criterium of cacophony). It is thus mostly used in the context of “modern” poetry [see muḥdat̲h̲ūn , in Suppl.]; and it mostly refers to single words rather than to any contextual obscurity (ʿAbd al-Ḳāhir al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲ānī says this explicitly: Dalāʾil , ed. M.M. S̲h̲ākir, Cairo 1404/1984, 44, 1. 4). It is not, however, an exclusively poetic phenomenon. Al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ speaks of s…


(709 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
, the seventeenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, numerical value: 900 The transliteration /ẓ/ reflects an urban/sedentary pronunciation as “emphatic” (pharyngealised) /z/. Sībawayh (d. 177/793 [ q.v.]), however, describes the sound as an “emphatic” voiced interdental, thus /ḏ̣/ (iv, 436), and this is the way it is pronounced in those dialects, mainly Bedouin, that have preserved the interdentals. There is, however, an additional complication: with ¶ very few exceptions (in Northern Yemen, see Behnstedt, 5), all modern dialects of Arabic have coalesced the sou…


(403 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a., pl. asāṭīl ), also spelled uṣṭūl (for this type of variation, see W. Heinrichs, in Studies in honor of Georg Krotkoff , Winona Lake, Ind. 1997, 175-8), the most common term for a “naval fleet”, and, secondarily, also for an individual “galley” or “man-of-war”. The word is a loan from Greek στόλος, which means inter alia “(naval) expedition” and “fleet”. Al-Masʿūdī (d. 345/956 [ q.v.]) is apparently the first to recognise the Greek origin of the word; he also gives a clear definition: al-usṭūl kalima rūmiyya sima li ’l-marākib al-ḥarbiyya al-mud̲j̲tamiʿa ( Tanbīh


(488 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
1. In older Arab society. Tattooing was a custom among women in pre-Islamic times. The parts of the body mentioned as recipients are the hand ([ ẓāhir al-] yad ), the wrist ( miʿṣam ), the arm ( d̲h̲irāʿ ), the posterior ( ist ) and the gums ( lit̲h̲a ). The motifs used are not mentioned; going by modern-day tattooing in Islamic countries they were probably abstract designs. The tattoo was created by pricking ( g̲h̲araza ) the skin with a needle ( ibra , misalla ) or—more specifically—with a tattooing needle ( mīs̲h̲am , pl. mawās̲h̲im , see Lewin, Vocabulay , 471), so that a trace ( at̲h̲ar

Zāy, also, more rarely, Zāʾ

(789 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
, the eleventh letter of the Arabic alphabet, numerical value 8. The former variant of the letter name retains the /y/ of the original letter name (as in Hebrew zayin ), while the latter has the innovative ending –āʾ , which occurred legitimately with fāʾ (Hebr. ) and hāʾ (Hebr. ) and then spread to bāʾ (Hebr. bēt̲ ), tāʾ / t̲h̲āʾ (Hebr. tāw ), ḥāʾ / k̲h̲āʾ (Hebr. ḥēt̲ ), rāʾ (Hebr. rēs̲h̲ ), ṭā / ẓāʾ (Hebr. ṭēt̲ ), ¶ and yāʾ (Hebr. yō٤̲ ), with loss of the final consonant of the original letter name. The letter is transliterated /z/ and represents a voiced sibilant ( ḥarf al-ṣafīr


(345 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
(a.) means the use of the phrase aʿūd̲h̲u bi ’llāhi min ... “I take refuge with God against...”, followed by the mention of the thing that the utterer of the phrase fears or abhors. The term istiʿād̲h̲a “seeking refuge”, is often used as a synonym. The phrase, with variants, is well attested in the Ḳurʾān, in particular in the last two sūras which each consist of one extended taʿawwud̲h̲ [see al-muʿawwid̲h̲atān 1 ]. The litany-like enumeration of evil things in the first of the two foreshadows similar strains in a number of Prophetic invocations recorded in the Ḥadīth


(1,194 words)

Author(s): Heinrichs, W.P.
, the fourth letter in the Arabic alphabet. In the abd̲j̲ad order [ q.v.] it has a numerical value of 500. The phoneme represented by this letter may be defined as the voiceless member of the apico-interdental triad of fricatives, as opposed to the voiced /d̲h̲/ [see d̲h̲āl ] and the “emphatic”, i.e. velarised, /ẓ/ [see ẓāʾ ]. Sībawayh (ed. Hārūn, Cairo 1395/1975, iv, 433) describes the point of articulation for the triad as “between the tip of the tongue and the tips of the incisors” and he is followed herein by— inter alios—Ibn D̲j̲innī ( Sirr ṣināʿat al-iʿrāb , ed. Ḥ.…
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