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Galinthias

(263 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γαλινθιάς; Galinthiás). According to Nicander (Heteroiumena 4 = Antoninus Liberalis 29) G. (Galanthis in Ov. Met. 9,285-323 [5. 469f.];  Historis in Paus. 9,11,3; Akalanthis in Lib. narrationes 8, s. [1]), daughter of Proetus, helped  Alcmene when the Moirai and Eilithyia, on Hera's behalf (cf. Hom. Il. 19,119), delayed the birth of  Hercules by folding their hands. With her false report of his birth, G. alarmed them so much that they broke the magical spell and Hercules was born.…

Onomacritus

(377 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὀνομάκριτος/ Onomákritos) from Athens, second half of the 6th/beginning of the 5th cent. BC, oracle interpreter and supervisor of the oracle of Musaeus [1] ( chrēsmológos te kai diathétēs chrēsmṓn) closely connected with the Peisistratids, whose interests he did not always serve. When Lasus [1] of Hermione convicted him for adding an oracle to those of Musaeus, he was banished by Hipparchus [1]. Yet he accompanied the Peisistratids after their downfall to Xerxes in order to induce him, by means of a deliberate choice of oracles, to march against Greece (Hdt. 7,6). Sour…

Maenads

(945 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μαινάς/ Mainás, pl. Μαινάδες/ Mainádes; Lat. Maenas, pl. Maenades). In modern research both the mythical companions (and antagonists) of Dionysus and their historical admirers are mostly called Maenads. But in Greek cult terminology the women who honour the god with a dance ritual every three years are especially called Bákchai (singular Bákchē, Lat. Bacchae), while the substantivized adjective Mainás (‘the mad one’, from maínesthai: ‘to be mad’), apart from four Hellenistic inscriptions with poetic tendencies [7. 52 with note 83], appears t…

Heliadae

(156 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)

Historis

(73 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἱστορίς; Historís). Daughter of the seer  Teiresias (hence the probable derivation from *ιδ-, ‘to see, to know’). In the context of Theban statues of Pharmacides (= Moirai), Paus. 9,11,3 tells us that H. was able to outwit them like  Galinthias in Nicander. The epithet of Juno Historia (CIL XI 3573) can probably be traced back to H. [1]. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography 1 M. Renard, Iuno Historia, in: Latomus 12, 1953, 137-154.

Myesis

(354 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (μύησις/ mýēsis, Lat. initiatio). Myesis is the initiation into a mystery (μυστήρια/ mystḗria, Lat. initia) whereby the candidate for initiation became a μύστης ( mýstēs, Lat. initiatus, initiated). As an additional rank the initiated could later attain the epopteía . As nomen actionis for the verb μυέω/ myéō (‘I initiate’; lat. initiare), which is considered a causativum to μύω/ mýō (‘I close [lips/eyes]’), myesis semantically presupposes the term mýstēs, which, like mystḗria, is not derived from myéō but rather from mýō [1; 7. 414f.]. This derivation, which…

Phaethon

(435 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Φαέθων/ Phaéthōn, 'the shining one', participle of the Greek phaínein). [German version] [1] Epithet of the sun god Helius Epithet of the sun god Helis (first in Hom. Od. 11,16, aside from the descriptive epithet already in Hom. Il. 11,735), which can also be used on its own to describe him in Roman (since Verg. Aen. 5,105) and Greek poetry of the Imperial period (Anth. Pal. 9,137,3; Nonnus, Dion., esp. 38,151f.).…

Mise

(159 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μίση/ Mísē, also Μισατίς/ Misatís). Deity associated with Mḗtēr/Cybele (Hsch. s.v. Μ.). According to Orph. H. 42, M. was bisexual and was worshipped in Eleusis, Phrygia, Cyprus (besides Aphrodite), and Egypt (besides Isis). Inscriptions record her cult in Pergamon (Demeter sanctuary, 2nd century AD) and the surrounding region (Samurlu). Her identification with Kore (Persephone), as attested in th…

Galli

(339 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γάλλοι/ Gálloi). ‘Servants’, ‘attendants’ and ‘worshippers’ of the  Mater Magna [1] chiefly in late Republican and Imperial Rome, described consistently as ‘priests’ only in Christian contexts. They first arose, along with the  Metragyrtae, in Asia Minor, late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 21,6,6 and 21,37,5, 190 and 189 BC; as literary figures: Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 6,220). The derivation of the name from Gauls or Galatians is now favoured by [4. 229; 3; 2. 118-120]; only from t…

Pentheus

(461 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Πενθεύς/ Pentheús; in Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 31 Τενθεύς/ Tentheús). Son of the spartós Echion [1] and Agaue, cousin of Actaeon and Dionysus and the latter's opponent. The earliest surviving complete presentation of the myth is the complex and controversial Bákchai by Euripides [1] (see [7]; cf. also Theocr. 26; Ov. Met. 3,511-731: [2]; Nonn. Dion. 44 and 46). In this play, P. is the young ruler of Thebes who wants to suppress the new cult of Dionysus, into which the god forces the sisters of Semele, because they challenge …

Lotis

(159 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)

Horae

(685 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὧραι; Hôrai). Divine beings governing cycles of time. Initially, there were three; later usually four (one Hora as goddess of youthful beauty: Pind. Nem. 8,1; series recapitulating 9 or 10 names: Hyg. Fab. 183), probably in connection with distinguishing a fourth season of the year (Alcm. fr. 12 Calame; Hippoc. De aere aquis et locis 1. 10; Aristot. Gen. an. 784a 19). The appellative and the personification are at times barely distinguishable (e.g., Hom. Il. 21,450; Od. 10,469). Like other grouped divinities, the H. often appear as attendants of Olympian …

Heraclidae

(658 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἡρακλεῖδαι; Hērakleîdai). Every descendant of  Hercules may be called Herakleídēs (see below). The narrower sense of the myth, which appears to have originated in the 7th cent. (Tyrteus fr. 2 West) and was developed by the 5th cent. at the latest, of the ‘return of the H. to the Peloponnese’ refers to Hercules' son  Hyllus and his descendants until the fourth generation (main sources: (Ps.-) Apollod. 2,167-180, Diod. Sic. 4, 57-58; as well as papyrus finds of  Euripides Temenos, Temenidai, Kresphontes, Archelaos). While fleeing from Eurystheus after Hercules…

Hermaphroditus

(475 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἑρμαφρόδιτος; Hermaphróditos). Androgynous figure which, like that of Priapus (cf. Diod. Sic. 4,6; [6. 76-79]), did not appear before the 4th cent. BC. Though androgynous gods of the Orient like  Astarte, ‘dual-sexuality’ gods like Aphrodite-Aphroditus on Cyprus, joint cults of Hermes and Aphrodite (see below) have rites involving changing gender roles and the exchange of clothing, as well as a background of myths of successive ( Caeneus,  Teiresias) and simultaneous (e.g. Pl. Symp. 189d-192d) bisexuality, its origin remain somewhat unclear [6. 69]. The na…

Harpalycus

(98 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἁρπάλυκος; Harpálykos). [German version] [1] Trac. king Thracian king, father of  Harpalyce. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Teacher of Heracles in wrestling From Panopeus. Son of  Hermes, teacher of  Hercules in wrestling, boxing and pancratium (Theoc. 24,111-118). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, killed by  Camilla with a lance (Verg. Aen. 11,675). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [4] Son of Lycaon Son of  Lycaon (Apollod. 3,97). According to [1] to be compared with the giant Harpolycus. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliograp…

Orgeones

(222 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὀργεῶνες/ orgeônes, also ὀργειῶνες/ orgeiônes, masc. sg. ὀργεών/ orgeṓn). Orgeônes in general were 'those in charge of orgia' (Aesch. fr. 144 Radt; Hom. Hymnus ad Apollinem 389: ὀργίονες/ orgíones). In the narrower sense, orgeônes (possibly even from as early as the Archaic period: Gai. apud Dig. 47,22,4 ex lege Solonis; not documented in inscriptions before the 4th cent. BC) were members of Attic societies who celebrated (usually annually) sacrificial rites in honour of a hero (hero cult) or a god. They [2] can be split into …

Teiresias

(327 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Τειρεσίας/ Teiresías, Lat. Teresias/ Tiresias, Etruscan Teriasals, Terasias). Blind seer from Thebes, son of Eueres and the nymph Chariclo, father of Manto and Historis. At the time when T. was connected to the myth of Odysseus in the Nekyia (Hom. Od. 10,490-495; 11,90-151), an established seer figure had already been part of the tradition, as in the Melampodia, where it is told that T. explains —after two se…

Melanion

(274 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μελανίων/ Melaníōn, Μειλανίων/ Meilaníōn; Latin *Milanion; personal name from μέλας/ mélas, ‘black’). An Arcadian, son of Amphidamas. In the ‘Arcadian’ version of the myth, he is the suitor of Atalante (according to Ps.-Apollod. 3,105 her cousin), with whom he has a son Parthenopaeus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 99; Ps.-Apollod. 3,109; Paus. 3,12,9; among the latter's alternative fathers none is the Hippomenes [1] of the ‘Boeotian’ version). As a participant in the games in honour of Pelias, M. was to be seen on the Cypselus Chest ( c. 600 BC, according to Paus. 5,17,10; 19,2) and as a participant in the Calydonian Hunt ( Meleager [1]) he is shown on the François Vase ( c. 570 BC, now in Florence). A choral song by Aristophanes (Aristoph. Lys. 781-796) stylises him a…

Homonoia

(281 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὁμόνοια; homónoia). The word homonoia (‘unity’) was evidently reshaped in Athens's crisis of 411 BC (referred to in Thuc. 8,75,2; 93,3) as an exhortation of the democrats to internal cohesion (cf. Antiphon 87 B 44-71; Thrasymachus 85 B 1; Gorgias 82 B 8a DK). Homonoia within the polis is from then on mostly based on socio-economic conflicts (antonym   stásis : Lys. 18,17-18), bilateral and trilateral homonoia (from the Hellenistic period) as well as border conflicts primarily in the rank disputes of Asia Minor in the Imperial period but also in…

Semele

(454 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Σεμέλη/ Semélē, Etruscan Semla; also Θυώνη/ Thyṓnē). Daughter of Cadmus [1] and Harmonia, sister of Agave, Autonoe, Ino and Polydorus (Hes. Theog. 975-978). S. is of significance due to the Theban myth of the birth of Dionysus: when she was pregnant by Zeus (Actaeon is said to have been her first suitor: Hes. fr. 217A M.-W.), she was persuaded by Hera to ask him to show himself in his true form. The weather god appeared as a thunderbolt, with which he killed her. He removed the unborn …
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