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Germany's Vision of Empire in Venezuela, 1871-1914

(86 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 9: The Un…

Germany's Vision of Empire in Venezuela, 1871-1914

(67 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 8: Expans…

Germany's Vision of Empire in Venezuela, 1871-1914

(70 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 4: United…

Haus, Anton Freiherr von

(355 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Haus, Anton Freiherr von (June 13, 1851, Tolmin – February 8, 1917, Pola [Pula]), Austro-Hungarian grand admiral. Haus entered the Austro-Hungarian Navy in 1869, and in 1901, as commander of the cruiser Maria Theresia, took part in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion. Between 1902 and 1905 he served as chairman of the presiding council in the Naval Section of the War Ministry. He became rear admiral in 1905, commander of the Second Division in 1906, and in 1907 was a delegate at the second peace conference in The Hague. He b…

Naval Cabinet ( Marinekabinett )

(353 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Naval Cabinet ( Marinekabinett ) The German Naval Cabinet was founded on April 1, 1889, as a joint military-civilian bureau to handle the human resources tasks of the naval officer corps. The new cabinet was placed under the initial leadership of Naval Captain Freiherr Gustav von Senden-Bibran. Candidates for the top command levels of the German navy were chosen in full accordance with the recommendations of the chief of the Naval Cabinet, who enjoyed direct access to the Kaiser. Accordingly the cabinet chief bore the respons…

Holtzendorff, Henning von

(337 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Holtzendorff, Henning von (January 9, 1853, Prenzlau – June 7, 1919, Jagow [Uckermark]), German grand admiral. Holtzendorff entered the navy in 1869, took part in the war of 1870/1871, and in 1900 served as commander of a capital ship during the Boxer Rebellion. After various commands on land (commander in chief of the navy, chief of staff of the Baltic Division, commander of the dockyard at Danzig [Gdańsk]), from 1906 to 1909 he was commander of the First Squadron, and in 1910 took command of the …

Benson, William Shepherd

(331 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Benson, William Shepherd (September 25, 1855, Bibb County GA – May 20, 1932, Washington DC), American admiral. Benson graduated from the Naval Academy 1877 and in 1888–1889 sailed around the world on the warship Dolphin. From 1890 to 1893 and 1896 to 1898 he taught at the Naval Academy, from 1910 to 1913 he commanded the battle ship Utah, and from 1913 to 1915 he was in command of the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard. On May 10, 1915, he was called to Washington as the new Chief of Naval Operations. In early 1917 Benson conducted a reorganization of the fle…

Dreadnought

(456 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Dreadnought British capital ship, and the name used for an entire type of modern battleships. By what has been termed the “Dreadnought leap” – superiority in firepower, protection, and speed – the Royal Navy rendered obsolete all large battleships built before that time. This qualitative advance in British naval technology was the consequence of military necessity. After the sea-battle of Tsushima on May 27/28, 1905, in which the Japanese fleet destroyed three Russian warships from a distance of …

Luckner, Felix Count von

(343 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Luckner, Felix Count von (June 9, 1881, Dresden – April 13, 1966, Malmö), German naval officer. Luckner left the Gymnasium (grammar school) at the age of 13 and sailed as ship’s boy on the steamer Niobe to Australia, where he worked as a dishwasher, fakir’s helper, Salvation Army missionary, and prize boxer. Wishing to make the acquaintance of his idol Buffalo Bill, Luckner signed on as a seaman on a four-master bound for San Francisco. From there he hiked across the American continent, although he failed to meet …

Beatty, David

(572 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Beatty, David (January 17, 1871, Howbeck, Cheshire – March 11, 1936, London; from 1919 Earl Beatty, Viscount Borodale of Borodale, Baron Beatty of the North Sea), British Admiral of the Fleet. Beatty joined the Royal Navy in 1884 and participated in various colonial operations, thus for instance in the Sudan (1896–1898) and in China (1900). After commanding several ships between 1902 and 1910, Beatty was promoted to rear admiral in 1910 – the youngest in 100 years. Having been appointed naval secretary to the First Lord of th…

Jellicoe, John R.

(609 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Jellicoe, John R. (December 5, 1859, Southampton – November, 20, 1935, London; Viscount of Scapa from 1918; Earl Jellicoe from 1915), British admiral. Jellicoe joined the Royal Navy in 1872 and took part in the Russo-Turkish War in 1877 as well as in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. As director of naval ordnance, he had been responsible for equipping HMS Dreadnought with heavy gunnery in 1905. Appointed rear admiral in 1907, Jellicoe was made Third Sea Lord in the following year and supervised the construction of 90 battleships, including eig…

Müller, Georg Alexander von

(353 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Müller, Georg Alexander von March 24, 1854, Chemnitz – April 18, 1940, Hangelsberg [Spree]), German admiral. Müller joined the Imperial Navy in 1871, serving in various land and ship positions including the torpedo service, as well as commander in chief of the navy. Müller accompanied Prince Heinrich (Henry) of Prussia to East Asia in 1897–1898 as his personal adjutant. After serving as commandant of the SMS Wettin, including related duties as a military aide to Kaiser Wilhelm II, Müller assumed command of the Imperial Naval Cabinet on July 8, 1906, remaining …

Jackson, Sir Henry Bradwardine

(357 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Jackson, Sir Henry Bradwardine (January 21, 1855, Barnsley – December 14, 1929, Hayling Island), British admiral. Jackson entered the Royal Navy in 1868, and in 1878/1879 took part in the Zulu War on board the HMS Active. From 1890 he took an interest in wireless technology, and six years later met his idol, the Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi. Jackson served as naval attaché in Washington in 1897 and became Third Sea Lord in 1905. In this position he experienced the revolution in naval armaments that led to the development of…

Spee, Imperial Count Maximilian von

(390 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Spee, Imperial Count Maximilian von ( June 22, 1861, Copenhagen – December 8, 1914, off the Falkland Islands), German admiral. Spee entered the Imperial German Navy in 1878 and became a rear admiral in 1910. Placed in command of the German East Asia Squadron in 1912, he was promoted to vice admiral in 1913. At the beginning of the war his squadron was operating in the vicinity of the island of Ponape, the largest of the Eastern Carolines. Following the Japanese declaration of war against Germany, Spee decided to head for Chile across the Pacific Ocean with the armored cruisers Scharnhorst and Gn…

The Forgotten Campaign: Alsace-Lorraine August 1914

(9,488 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Herwig, Holger H., - The Forgotten Campaign: Alsace-Lorraine August 1914 Keywords: French Army and its combattants | Western Front | France | Germany | Published memoirs and biographies | Experience of combat | Science, Technology, and Medicine Abstract: The conclusions drawn from the campaign in Alsace-Lorraine are as follows. First, the German army's prewar neglect of electronic communications and the need to assign royal heirs to command field armies combined against efficient coordination between Koblenz and Hell…

Hipper, Franz Ritter von

(411 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Hipper, Franz Ritter von (September 13, 1863, Weilheim [Upper Bavaria] – May 25, 1932, Altona-Othmarschen [now part of Hamburg]), German admiral. Hipper entered the Imperial Navy in 1881, and initially served as commander and flotilla commander of torpedo boats. He held several cruiser commands after 1903. In 1912 Hipper was appointed commander of reconnaissance forces, and it was in this function that he led the unsuccessful cruiser actions of 1914, which, as early as August 28, led to the loss of the light cruisers Ariadne, Mainz, and Köln in the German Bight. Even worse was the …

Fisher, John Arbuthnot

(493 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Fisher, John Arbuthnot (January 25, 1841, Ramboda [Ceylon] – July 10, 1920, London; from 1908 Baron Fisher of Kilberstone), British admiral. Fisher joined the Royal Navy in 1854, and, after a variety of seagoing posts, began a 14-year period of service on land in 1882. In 1899 he represented England at the First Hague Peace Conference. He was subsequently entrusted with the command of the Mediterranean Fleet. As Second Sea Lord (1901), Fisher undertook an intensive remodeling of the personnel struc…

Scheer, Reinhard

(408 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Scheer, Reinhard (September 30, 1863, Obernkirchen [Kreis Schaumburg] – November 26, 1928, Marktredwitz [Bavaria]), German admiral. Scheer entered the German navy in 1879, and, after several overseas postings, was employed from 1890 in the torpedo service. Transferred to the Reichsmarineamt (Reich Naval Office) in 1903, in 1907 he became commander of the pre-dreadnought battleship Elsass and two years later became chief of staff of the High Seas Fleet. In 1911 he became the director of the general naval department within the Reich Naval office. Sch…

Tirpitz, Alfred von

(483 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Tirpitz, Alfred von (March 19, 1849, Küstrin – March 6, 1930, Ebenhausen), German admiral and politician. Tirpitz joined the Prussian Navy in 1865 and the Imperial Navy in 1871. From 1877 to 1888 he organized the navy’s torpedo arm. In 1892 became chief of staff of the naval command, and in 1896 chief of the cruiser division in East Asia, where he prepared the capture of Jiaozhou (Kiautschou). In June 1897 Tirpitz became secretary of state of the Imperial Navy, and additionally in 1898 a Prussian minister of state. In 1900 he was ennobled. In his Memorandum IX of 1894 he had already given t…

Grigorovich, Ivan Konstantinovich

(349 words)

Author(s): Herwig, Holger H.
Grigorovich, Ivan Konstantinovich (February 7, 1853, Saint Petersburg – March 3, 1930, Menton, France), Russian admiral and minister of the navy. Grigorovich graduated from the Naval Academy in 1874, served in the war against Turkey 1877–1878, and was posted to London as naval attaché from 1896 to 1898. Having commanded the battleship Zarevich in 1903, he was the officer in charge of the port at Port Arthur during the war with Japan in 1904. Following service as chief of staff for the Black Sea Fleet (1905), he was appointed chief of the Baltic p…
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