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Arnold, Matthew

(145 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Dec 24, 1822, Laleham near Staines – Apr 15, 1888, Liverpool), poet and critic. Arnold was educated at Winchester, Rugby, and Balliol College, Oxford (B.A. 1844). He was elected Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. He served as private secretary to the Marquis of Lansdowne from 1847 to 1851. From 1851 to 1866 he was Inspector of Schools. From 185…

Abbott, Edwin

(127 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Dec 20, 1838, London – Dec 10, 1926, Hampstead), teacher and scholar. He studied at St. John's College in Cambridge (1857–1861), became fellow in St. John's in 1862, resigning the office, however, when he married in 1863. Ordained a deacon in the Church of England in 1862 and a priest in 1863, he dedicated his life, however, primarily to educ…

Benson, Richard Meux

(159 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Jul 6, 1824, London – Jan 14, 1915, Cowley), founder of the Society of St. John the Evangelist. Benson was educated at home and through travels in Germany and Italy with his sister Sarah. Meetings with leading Catholic theologians and a private audience with pope Gregory X moved him to study the Roman Catholic Church thoroughly, but not to give up his own Anglican …

Benson, Edward White

(168 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Jul 14, 1829, Birmingham – Oct 11, 1896, Hawarden), archbishop of Canterbury. Benson was educated at King Edward's School and Trinity College, Cambridge (1848–1852). He taught at Rugby (1852–1859) and served as headmaster of Wellington College (1859–1872). In 1872, he was appointed chancellor of Lincoln Minster…

Taylor, William

(211 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (1765, Norwich – Mar 5, 1836, Norwich), renowned English translator and literary critic. Taylor’s father instructed him in foreign language correspondence for the family business and sent him abroad in 1779. After stays in Holland, France, and Italy, the young man had mastered French and Italian. After a brief stay in England in 1781, he spent a year in Detmold, where he discovered a love for the German language and German literature. When the family business was dissolved in 1791…

Admonition to Parliament, The (1572)

(125 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] A Puritan manifesto, demanding a non-episcopal constitution for the Church of England. It condemned the Book of Common Prayer both in general and on specific points as “papist”. It called for the abolition of the entire leadership of the Church of England with its non-residences, pluralities, episcopal hierarchy, and power. It also called for its replacement by a Presbyterian government of ministers, elders, and deacons. The authors justified the reorganization as a restoration of the church to its pristine purity. A Second Admonition was necessary to describe …

Barnett, Samuel Augustus

(178 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Feb 8, 1844, Bristol – Jun 17, 1913, Hove), a theologian and social reformer. He was educated at home and at Wadham College, Oxford (B.A. 1865). His curacy in the inner city of London confronted him with the problems of a large city. In 1869, he founded the Charity Organization Society. In 1873, he was sent to St. Jude's in Whitechapel, a par…

Arnold, Thomas

(166 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Jun 13, 1795, East Cowes, Isle of Wight – Jun 12, 1842, Oxford), headmaster of Rugby College, was educated at Warminster, Winchester and Corpus Christi College, Oxford, entering at age 16. On obtaining his B.A. in classics in 1814, he was elected Fellow of Oriel College. Ordained a deacon in the Church of England in 1818, he moved to Laleham …

Alford, Henry

(122 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1810, London – Jan 12, 1871, Canterbury), NT scholar. Alford prepared himself early on for a religious vocation. During his studies at Cambridge, he developed a deep interest in the NT. He became fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1834, and was appointed Hulsean Lecturer at Cambridge in 1941. Ordained in November 1834 after a curacy at Ampton, he served as rector in Wyneswold from 1835 to 1853. From 1857 to 1871, he was dean of Canterbury. He distinguished himself mainly with his work The Greek New Testament, published in four…

Barlow, William

(156 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (c. 1565, London or Barlow – Sep 7, 1613, Lincoln), bishop of Lincoln. He was educated at St. John's College in Cambridge (M.A. 1587). Having gained a certain reputation for his learning, he was elected fellow at Trinity Hall from which he received a Doctor of Divinity in 1599. Archbishop J. Whitgift made him his ch…

Bennett, William James Early

(154 words)

Author(s): Hinson, E. Glenn
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1804, Halifax, Nova Scotia – Aug 17, 1886, Froome), liturgical innovator. Bennett was educated at Westminster (1816–1823) and Christ Church, Oxford (MA 1829). Ordained in 1831, he gained a substantial reputation as a preacher. Low Church liturgical practices, which he introduced at St. Paul's in Knightsbridge and St. Bar-nabas in Piml…


(28,993 words)

Author(s): Stolz, Fritz | Markschies, Christoph | Koschorke, Klaus | Neuner, Peter | Felmy, Karl Christian | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Survey of the Christian Confessions – IV. Systematic Theology I. Religious Studies For an overview of Christianity at the end of the second millennium of its development, it is reasonable to give a comparative presentation against the background of the world of religion. It must be remembered, however, that “religion” is not an immutable, ahistorical quantity: it is variable and controversial. The modern concept of religion is …