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Literary Societies

(1,914 words)

Author(s): Hockx, Michel
Literary societies constitute a fundamental element of modern Chinese literary practice, especially of the Republican era. Most modern Chinese literary organizations can be classified as literary societies (wenxue shetuan). Societies are often treated together with "schools" (liupai), such as "the Realist school" or "the Modernist school", reflecting scholars' and critics' perception of similarities between individuals' literary works or beliefs. As this kind of treatment is confusing, here only real societies are addressed, that …

Literary Journals

(1,598 words)

Author(s): Hockx, Michel
Throughout the 20th century, literary journals have been the primary avenue for publication of literary work in China. This entry provides (1) a definition and general introduction to the subject, (2) a discussion of the literary consequences of the prominence of journal publication, and (3) a short description of the major journals of the Republican period, the PRC, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the Chinese overseas community. 1. Definition and General Introduction Literary journals are periodical publications devoted in their entirety to the theory and practice of liter…


(3,838 words)

Author(s): Schmidt-Glintzer, Helwig | Hockx, Michel | Louie, Kam
1. The Classic Novel and its Precursors The first great, "classic" novels of China, whose origins go back to the time around 1400, but which are known only from editions from the 16th and 17th centuries, mirror the special circumstances of that epoch. A new element was that the novels dealt with the traditional storytelling material in a distanced and partially ironic way. The novels Sanguozhi [tongsu] yanyi ( The Three Kingdoms History [with Popular Explanations] or short: The History of the Three Kingdoms), Shuihu zhuan ( Water Margin/ Outlaws of the Marsh), as well as Kin Ping Meh ( Jinping…